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ANGIOSPERMAE: DICOTS (9 August 2005 Revision)

ACANTHACEAE (4) (* det. L. McDade)
     Ref.: Leonard, E. C. 1951-58. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 31: 1-781.

1. Blechum pyramidatum (Lam.) Urb.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; weed, fls. white: 27430*, 27870; Z 173. "Barrejorno"

2. Hygrophila costata Nees
     Sec. for., clearings and swampy areas, 1200-1400 m; herb, fls. white: 31105; Z 175, 205.

3. Justicia pectoralis Jacq.
     Sec. for., 1350 m; herb, fls. white with purplish spots: Z 172.

4. Justicia secunda Vahl
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; scrambler with pink fls.: 27363, 27519, 28307*; Z 123.

5. Justicia sp. 1?
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; herb 1 m, fls. white: 27796.

6. Mendoncia cf. orbicularis Turrill
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1800 m; vine with white fls.: 27597, 27683, 27737, 27762; Z 143.

ACTINIDIACEAE (1) (* det. D. Soejarto)
     Ref.: Soejarto, D. 1982. Fl. Ecuador 17: 1-48.

1. Saurauia brachybotrys Tucz.
     El Pahuma, 1960 m; tree 6 m with white fls.: Nicolade 319.

2. Saurauia herthae Sleumer
     Prim. for., 1850-1900 m; tree 5 m: F 1010.

3. Saurauia lehmannii Hieron.
     Prim. & sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1925-2025 m; shrub 3-4 m with white fls.: 29209, 30461, 31189, [32826 from Auca, at 2250 m, may tentatively be placed here].

4. Saurauia cf. prainiana Buscal.
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; common tree 6-8 m, fls. white: 27001, 27779, 32762. "Huevo frito", "Moco"

5. Saurauia pseudostrigillosa Buscal.
     El Pahuma, 1960 m; tree 5-7 m with white fls.: Nicolade 353.

6. Saurauia tomentosa (Kunth) Spreng.
     Sec. for., 1900-2450 m; shrub or tree 2-12 m x 24 cm DAP, fls. white: F 1042; Sparre 14861; Vargas 4074; Zak & Jaramillo 3211, 3217*, 3242. [Specimens have been determined as both var. sprucei (Sprague) Soejarto & var. tomentosa; perhaps conspecific with specimens determined as S. cf. prainiana.]

AMARANTHACEAE (5)
     Ref.: Eliasson, U. 1987. Fl. Ecuador 28: 1-137.

1. Alternanthera mexicana (Schltdl.) Hieron.
     Weedy areas, 1200-1400 m: 27195, 28111, 30335; Filskov 37030. "Escancel"

2. Alternanthera porrigens (Jacq.) Kuntze
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-2500 m; scrambler, fls. pinkish: 27601, 28090, 28801, 32466; Z 230. [27601 & 28801 represent var. porrigens; 28090 & 32446 represent var. piurensis (Standl.) Eliasson.] "Moradilla"

3. Amaranthus hybridus L.
     Open areas, Nanegalito, 1400 m: Filskov 37016 (det. U. Eliasson). "Ataco"

4. Amaranthus viridis L. ?
     Recent clearing, Maquipucuna, 1400 m: Z 184.

5. Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) Kunth
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; shrub or scrambler, fls. white or reddish: 27146, 27237, 27568, 30309, 31614, 31670; F 1111; G 73229; T 201, 202.

6. Cyathula achyranthoides (Kunth) Moq.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-1500 m; common weed to 1.5 m: 27207, 27409, 28290; Z 68; Filskov 37122 (det. T. M. Pedersen). "San Gémula"

7. Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
     Sec. for. & scrub, extending into prim. for., 1200-2300 m; scrambler or vine to 15 m: 27063, 27736, 28139, 28286, 28757, 28759, 30214, 32447; Z 215; Cedeño 12. "Camarón", "Escancel"

ANNONACEAE (2) (* det. L. Westra; ** det. P. J. M. Maas et al.)
     Refs.: Maas, P. J. M., E. A. Mennega, & L. Y. T. Westra. 1987. Annonaceae Newsletter 4: 1-135. Westra, L. Y. T. 1995. Bot. Jahrb. 117: 273-297. Chatrou, L. W., P. J. M. Maas, & C. P. Repetur. p. 97-122 in R. Valencia & H. Balslev, Estudios sobre Diversidad y Ecología de Plantas. 1997.

1. Guatteria cf. tessmannii R. E. Fr.
     Sec. for., 1350-1415 m; tree 20-30 m, fls. greyish brown with yellow center, frs. purplish: 31042, 31318.

2. Raimondia cherimolioides (Triana & Planch.) R. E. Fr.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; common tree 5-20 m, fls. yellow: 27060*, 27917, 27932**, 28680**, 30000**, 30442**, 31115, 31159, 31326, 31554, 31691; C 13117*; Z 165. "Anonilla"

APIACEAE (6)
     Ref.: Mathias, M. E., & L. Constance. 1976. Fl. Ecuador 5: 1-71.

1. Arracacia cf. elata H. Wolff
     Disturbed scrub, Quebrada Chiquilpe, 2300 m; fls. yellow-green: 32450 [atypical in leaf segments narrowly incised, infls. entirely glabrous].

     [Daucus montanus Spreng., has been collected at 00° 01' S 78° 35' W, 2750-2800 m: Øllgaard 98985, and may be expected in our area.]

2. Eryngium foetidum L.
     Weed, sec. for., 1500-1600 m: 27814. "Culantrillo del monte"

     [Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Nanegalito, 1400 m; cult.: Filskov 37025 (det. B. Øllgaard). "Enneldo"]

3. Hydrocotyle bonplandii A. Rich.
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m: L 13670*.

4. Hydrocotyle humboldtii A. Rich.
     Upper montane for., 2650-2750 m; scrambler, fls. green: 29486, 30552, 31520. "Orejuela"

5. Hydrocotyle leucocephala Cham. & Schltdl.
     Banks in sec. for., 1300-1350 m; creeping herb, fls. greenish: 27432, 28183; Z 30. "Paraguita"

6. Hydrocotyle pusilla A. Rich.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; mat-forming, frs. orange: 30319, 31750.

7. Neonelsonia acuminata (Benth.) J. M. Coult. & Rose ex Drude
     Sec. upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; scrambling herb to 1.5 m, fls. greenish-yellow: K 31993.

8. Sanicula liberta Cham. & Schltdl.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; fls. greenish: 27205, 27650; C 12407; K 31797; Filskov 37123 (det. B. Øllgaard); Mantuano 20.

9. Spananthe paniculata Jacq.
     Pastures, 1375-1400 m: Z 207, 224.

APOCYNACEAE (3)
     Ref.: Woodson, R. E. 1933. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 605-790; 1936. ibid. 23: 153-206.

1. Mandevilla callista Woodson
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; vine with white latex; corolla white with purple-rimmed lobes: 31098, 31319; T 602 (det. F. Morales).

2. Mandevilla veraguasensis (Seem.) Hemsl.
     Sec. for., Sendero de las Palmitas, 1300 m; dull purplish fls. on trail: 32739.

3. Mesechites trifidus (Jacq.) Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1130-1250 m; vine with greenish-white or yellowish-white fls.: 31270, 31723; V 12270 (det. B. Hansen); Z 19, 198.

4. Prestonia annularis (L. f.) G. Don
     Sec. for., west of Marianitas, 1150-1300 m; rare vine, fls. purplish: 28834 (det. R. Burnham).

AQUIFOLIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Edwin, G. 1965. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 12(3): 124-150.

1. Ilex sp. (aff. I. nervosa Triana ?)
     Sec. for., 1550 m; treelet: G 73127.

ARALIACEAE (3) (* det. F. Borchsenius)
     Ref.: Borchsenius, F. 1997. Nordic J. Bot. 17: 373-396. Ulloa U., C., & P. M. Jørgensen. 1993. Arboles y arbustos de los Andes del Ecuador: 64-66.

1. Dendropanax macrophyllum Cuatrec.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; tree 13-20 m, fls. greenish, frs. black: 27626, 28258, 32970 (det. D. G. Frodin); F 1009, 1076; V 12310; Nicolalde 384. "Malva"

2. Dendropanax sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1550-1630 m; tree: G 69935, 73166.

3. Oreopanax capitatus (Jacq.) Dcne. & Planchon
     El Pahuma, 1900 m; liana: C. Espinoza 45.

4. Oreopanax confusus Marchal
     Prim. & sec. for., 1650-2100 m; liana or tree to 16 m: 29338*, 30257, 31775, 32772; C 5929*; F 1080, 1107, 1205, 1216, 1512; G 73210*; P 3602*; T 180*.

5. Oreopanax cf. eriocephalus Harms
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1700 m; tree 10-20 m: 31708, 32950.

6. Oreopanax floribundus (Kunth) Decne. & Planch.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 5-15 m: F 1266, 1582; [28395, a sterile specimen from a sapling, may belong here].

7. Oreopanax grandifolius F. Borchsenius
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 5-10 m: C 39762; G 69934*; Q 54*; T 142*. "Pumamaqui"

     [Oreopanax palamophyllus Harms has been collected at 00° 02' S 78° 36' W, 2500 m: P 3626*.]

8. Oreopanax sp. 1
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2725 m: 29499.

9. Schefflera dielsii Harms
     Sec. for. to prim./sec. for. transition, 1400-1650 m; vine-like shrub or small tree to 5 m: 31134, 32951; Z 85.

10. Schefflera cf. ferruginea (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Harms
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; common treelet 2-4 m: 27170, 27642, 28041, 28729, 28853, 29243, 30420; F 1598; G 69944, 73162; Nicolalde 380, 385.

11. Schefflera lasiogyne Harms
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2000 m; shrub 4 m, fls. greenish-yellow: 31075; C 5915*, 13083*; F 1214, 1503*; N 11935*; Q 137*; T 169*, 203*; V 12253*, 12306*; Mantuano 28; [28956, a tree 15 m tall at 2050-2100 m, may belong here].

12. Schefflera cf. sphaerocoma (Benth.) Harms
     Sec. for., 1600 m; tree 8 m, infls. c. 0.75 m, fls. whitish-yellow: 31765.

13. Schefflera cf. whitefoordiae M. J. Cannon & Cannon
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; tree to 7 m: 28972; V 12294. [Perhaps not distinct from S. sphaerocoma.]

ASCLEPIADACEAE (7)
     Ref.: Spellman, D. L. 1975. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 103-156.

1. Asclepias curassavica L.
     Common weed, sec. for., 1200-1300 m; prim. for., 1900 m: 27307, 27658, 30127. "Viborana"

2. Blepharodon nitidum (Vell.) J. F. Macbr.?
     1365 m; climber: Bremer 3354.

3. Cynanchum sp.
     Prim. for., 2100 m; small vine, fls. yellow: P 3594.

4. Fischeria columbiana Schltr.
     Sec. for., between Marianitas & Nanegal, 1200-1250 m; vine, fls. greenish-white: 28312. [Not in CVPE, ann. by Stevens as F. scandens (Vell.) Fourn.]

5. Fischeria sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1560 m; vine with purplish fls., frs. woody: 31782.

6. Gonolobus sp. ? [genus doubtful]
     Prim. for., 1925 m; vine, fls. white: 29222.

7. Matelea cf. ecuadorensis (Schltr.) Morillo
     Sec. for., 1300-1700 m; vine, fls. green; frs. green, woody, 20 cm long: 27151, 31333. [According to CVPE, known only from the type.]

8. Matelea lehmannii (Schltr.) Morillo
     Sec. for., 1220 m: Croat 38890 (det. G. Morillo).

9. Oxypetalum cordifolium (Vent.) Schltr.
     Swampy area between El Carmen & Marianitas, 1150 m; vine in thickets, not common, fls. yellow: 29076.

ASTERACEAE (56) (* det. H. Robinson; ** det. J. Strother)
     Refs.: Aristeguieta, L. 1964. Fl. Venezuela 10: 1-941. D'Arcy, W. G. (ed.). 1975. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 835-1322. Ulloa U., C., & P. M. Jørgensen. 1993. AAU Rep. 30: 70-102. Robinson, H., & V. A. Funk. 1997. Compositae of Ecuador, I: key to frequently collected genera. Mem. II Congreso Ecuatoriano Bot. 65-78.

1. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC.
     Prim. for., steep slopes near Calacalí-Nanegalito Road, 18 km from Mitad del Mundo, 2040-2090 m, 00° 01' N 78° 34' W; ep.: Ankersen 139.

2. Acmella alba (L'Hér.) R. K. Jansen var. ecuadorensis R. K. Jansen
     Weed in sec. for., fls. white, 1150-2000 m: 27415**, 27886**, 28826**, 32787; C 13023; Z 195; Delgado 39*; Filskov 37057. "Ba[/o]toncillo"

3. Adenostemma platyphyllum Cass.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; weed with white fls.: 27377; Filskov 37114*. [Some Ecuador specimens have been determined as A. lavenia (L.) Kuntze, a species not confirmed for the neotropics.] "Tía Juana", "Mama Juana"

4. Ageratina pichinchensis (Kunth) R.M. King & H. Rob.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub to 0.5 m: Delgado 24*.

5. Ageratina rosei H. Rob.
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 1500-1800 m; herbaceous weed, fls. white: Rubio 2083* (paratype). [Not in CVPE.]

6. Ageratina websteri H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1900-1925 m; herbaceous weed, fls. white: 31619* (known only from this type collection). [Not in CVPE.]

7. Ageratum conyzoides L.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m: 27404; Z 50. "Pedrorera"

8. Ambrosia arborescens Mill.
     Nanegalito, gardens and fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37043. "Marco"

9. Ayapanopsis cuchabensis (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1750-2250 m; shrubby herb to 2 m, corolla lavender to dark blue: 31933*, 32841, 32861.

10. Baccharis jelskii Hieron.
     Sec. for., 1250-1700 m; shrub or vine, fls. white, fragrant: 27006, 29251*, 29342*, 31695.

11. Baccharis latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
     Upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; shrub 2-4 m, fls. whitish: 32451; H 29539*; L 13659; Rojas 406*. "Chilca"

12. Baccharis nitida (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; shrub or tree to 6 m, fls. white: 27313; Z 46; Ward s.n.

13. Baccharis pululahuensis Hieron.
     Sec. for., 1250-1750 m; scandent shrub, fls. white: 28332*, 30412*, 31652*, 31693, 31935*.

14. Baccharis teindalensis Kunth
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; shrub 4 m: C 7190*.

15. Baccharis trinervis Pers.
     Rip. for., 1350-1800 m; shrub 1.5-3 m, fls. white: 27587; C 13040; Z 2. [Maquipucuna specimens are atypical in their lanceolate rather than elliptic lvs.] "Chilca"

16. Barnadesia parviflora Spruce ex Benth. & Hook. f.
     Sec. for., 1100-1960 m; spiny shrub or tree 3-10 m, fls. pink to rose-red: 29269*, 30228, 30514*; F 1520; Holm-Nielsen 24428 (det. E. Urtubey); Nicolalde 328*. "Espino de gato"

17. Barnadesia spinosa L. f.
     Pasture, El Pahuma, 1500-1800 m; shrub 2 m, pink fls.: Rubio 2082.

18. Bidens odorata Cav.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 26*.

19. Bidens pilosa L.
     Sec. for., 1200-2400 m; common herbaceous weed: 27238, 27431, 30205; Z 220; Filskov 37067*. "Crespa morada", "Moriseco"

20. Bidens squarrosa Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-1700 m; climbing or creeping vine: 28033, 31759**, 32948. [The Strother det. may be incorrect; specimens in QCNE are annotated B. riparia Kunth by H. Robinson.]

21. Bidens triplinervia Kunth
     Disturbed areas, 2000 m; herb, fls. yellow: 31864**.

22. Centratherum punctatum Cass.
     Sec. for., between Marianitas & Nanegal, 1150 m; weed, fls. blue: 28821.

23. Chaptalia nutans (L.) Polak
     Sec. for., 1250-1800 m; acaulescent herb, bracts purplish-tipped, fls. pink: 27384, 27426; C 14232*; Z 190.

24. Chromolaena scabra (L. f.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1700-1925 m; shrub 1.5-2 m, fls. pale lavender: 31583, 31936*, 32768.

25. Clibadium alatum H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1550 m; tree 6 m: 29256*.

26. Clibadium eggersii Hieron.
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1650 m; shrub 1.5 m, fls. white: 30352*.

27. Clibadium laxum S. F. Blake
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; shrub or tree to 5 m, fls. whitish, frs. yellow & fleshy: 27314*, 28745*, 30608*, 31718*; G 73205*; N 9802*; Z 229.

28. Clibadium surinamense L.
     Sec. for., 1500-2750 m; shrub, often scrambling, 1.5-2.5 m, fls. white: 30483*, 31951*, 32807, 32838; K 31967*.

29. Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl.) Baill.
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1500 m; shrub 3 m, fls. white: 28327*.

30. Clibadium websteri H. Rob.
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1750-2050 m; shrub with cane-like stems to 3 m: 30474*, 31930* (type).

31. Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist
     Clearings in sec. for., 1500-1600 m; herbaceous weed: 32117.

32. Critonia morifolia (Miller) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1300-1500 m; scrambling to 4 m, fls. whitish, fragrant: 31696*, 32356.

33. Critoniopsis occidentalis (Cuatrec.) H. Rob.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1350-2000 m; tree 10-20 m, fls. purplish: 28689*, 30246*, 31314; Q 7*, 31*, 285*.

34. Dendrophorbium lloense (Hieron.) Jeffrey (= Senecio lloensis Hieron.)
     Prim. & sec. for. to upper mont. for., 1400-2750 m; shrub 3-4 m, rays yellow: 30453, 30601*, 31950*, 32766; H 29548*.

35. Elephantopus mollis Kunth
     Weed, fls. whitish, 1200-1400 m: 27087; Z 15; Filskov 37065 (det. B. Øllgaard).

36. Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw.) Sch. Bip.
     Weed in sec. for., 1250 m; fls. yellow: Hunter s.n.

37. Erato polymnioides DC.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-2000 m; coarse weedy herb 1-2 m, fls. yellow: 27068, 27309, 27586, 28177, 32770; C 12416; Nicolalde 322*.

38. Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC.
     Common weed to 1 m, fls. yellow, 1400-1500 m: 27183, 27199; Z 186.

39. Fleischmannia huigrensis (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; creeping shrub or vine with pale violet rays: Grimes & Todzia 2488; Delgado 37*; Filskov 37059*.

40. Fleischmannia obscurifolia (Hieron.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Weed, fls. lavender, 1200-1900 m: 27086, 30122*; Z 51.

41. Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1150-2800 m; weed, rays pink or white, disk yellow: 27433, 28829*, 30108, 31507, 32785; Delgado 31*.

42. Gnaphalium luteo-album L. ?
     Sec. for., 1500-1600 m; weed, 27567, 32777. [Determination doubtful.] "Hierba blanca", "Lechugilla"

43. Gnaphalium purpureum L. (= Gamochaeta purpurea (L.) Cabrera)
     Sec. for., 1900-2000 m; weed: 30119; Mantuano 7* (as Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd.).

44. Gynoxys hallii Hieron.
     Pastures, El Pahuma, 1500-1800 m; treelet to 5 m, fls. yellow: Rubio 2081.

45. Hebeclinium killipii (B. L. Rob.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1875 m; shrub to 4 m, sometimes clambering, fls. whitish or purple: 27484*, 29084*, 29240*, 29365, 30341*.

46. Hebeclinium obtusisquamosum (Hieron.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Prim. for., 1800 m; tree 6 m, fls. white: 28762*.

47. Hebeclinium tetragonum Benth.
     Scrub on banks, 2000-2350 m; shrub to 2.5 m, fls. blue: 31539; K 32020.

48. Heliopsis buphthalmoides (Jacq.) Dunal
     Sec. for., 1150-1700 m; herb with yellow fls.: 27378**, 27434**, 28118*, 28804*, 28831**, 32759; Filskov 37052*. [A number of collections have been determined as H. oppositifolia (Lam.) Diaz, an illegitimate name.]

49. Heterocondylus vitalbae (DC.) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; somewhat scandent to 3 m, fls. pinkish or lilac: 27069, 28343*, 32909; D 6080; Z 23.

     [Hieracium frigidum Wedd., between Calacalí & Nanegalito, 2175 m: Croat 72876*, is just east of our boundary.]

50. Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth) Hieron.
     Roadsides, 2000-2300 m; fls. yellow: 31812, 32819.

51. Hypochaeris radicata L.
     Trailsides, 2250 m; fls. yellow: 32831.

52. Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less.
     Common weed, 1200-2750 m; fls. yellow: 27439, 30539*, 32786; Delgado 23*; Filskov 37079*.

53. Jungia mitis Benoist
     Sec. for., 1950-2000 m; climbing vine, fls. white, fragrant: 32444.

54. Liabum stipulatum Rusby
     Scrub on banks, 1500-2000 m; herb 0.5-1 m, fls. yellow: 31856, 31914, 32783.

     [Matricaria sp., Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37020 (det. B. Øllgaard). "Manzanilla"]

55. Mikania banisteriae DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-1550 m; vine to 5 m, fls. white: 27005 (det. R. Noyes), 27639 (det. A. J. Bornstein); G 73131*.

56. Mikania congesta DC.
     Sec. for., 1920 m; creeping vine, fls. white: 30125*.

57. Mikania cordifolia (L. f.) Willd.
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; common weedy vine, fls. white: 27016; N 9792*; Z 18. "Guaco"

58. Mikania leiostachya Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; vine with whitish fls.: 27286, 29340*, 30247, 30419, 31932.

59. Mikania micrantha Kunth
     Sec. for., 1650-2200 m; liana, fls. white: 32388, 32776; Croat 72893*; Grimes 2490 (det. B. L. Turner); Zak & Jaramillo 3226*.

60. Mikania sylvatica Klatt
     Prim. for., Cerro Negro, 1950-2000 m; clambering vine, fls. yellowish-white: 30470*.

61. Mikania websteri H. Rob. & W. C. Holmes
     Prim. for., 2100-2150 m; vine with pink fls.: 28885* (type). [Not in CVPE.]

62. Munnozia hastifolia (Poepp.) H. Rob. & Bretell
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; coarse herb to 1.5 m, fls. yellow: 27083, 29061, 31725, 31912.

63. Munnozia liaboides (Less.) H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; coarse herb, fls. yellow: 31713* [specimen collected with M. pinnatipartita, appearing intermediate between M. hastifolia & M. pinnatipartita].

64. Munnozia pinnatipartita (Hieron.) H. Rob. & Bretell
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; coarse herb, fls. yellow: 27056*, 31714, 32425, 32800. [31726 appears intermediate between M. hastifolia & M. pinnatipartita.]

65. Munnozia senecionidis Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2750 m; vine to 15 m, fls. yellow: 27832, 28704, 29461, 30459, 30490, 31126, 32840; H 29540*.

66. Mutisia grandiflora Bonpl.
     Banks, 2350 m; vine with pendulous red fls.: K 32015.

67. Neomirandea homogama (Hieron.) H. Rob. & Bretell
     Sec. for., 1600-1725 m; herb 1-2 m, fls. purplish or pinkish: 28349*, 31685*.

68. Oligactis pichinchensis (Hieron.) H. Rob. & Bretell
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; vine with yellow fls.: 28944*, 30185; H 29529*.

69. Pappobolus imbaburensis (Hieron.) Panero
     Sec. for., 2340 m: K 32017.

70. Pentacalia floribunda Cuatrec.
     Sec. scrub, 2350 m; shrub to 2.5 m, lvs. purplish beneath, phyllaries purplish, fls. yellow: K 32016*.

71. Pentacalia huilensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2275 m; woody vine, lvs. often purplish beneath, fls. white: 29152, 29339, 29440*, 32903, 32926; [G 73186 may also belong here].

72. Pentacalia jelskii (Hieron.) Cuatrec.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2250 m; vine with yellowish-white fls.: 27739*, 28943*. [Not in CVPE.]

73. Pentacalia luteynorum H. Rob. & Cuatrec. ?
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2250-2750 m; climber with yellow fls.: 29439*; H 29532*.

74. Pentacalia riotintis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. ?
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; shrub to 3 m, fls. yellow: K 31973*. [Previously known only from the type, according to CVPE.]

75. Piptocoma cf. discolor (Kunth) Pruski
     Sec. for., 1650 m; tree 4 m: 29262 [specimen barren, species identity needing confirmation].

76. Polyanthina nemorosa (Klatt) R. M. King & H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1150-2100 m; weedy herb 1-2 m, fls. white or pale blue: 27091, 27311*, 28833, 29196*, 29354, 30468*, 31332, 32967; Z 214.

77. Pseudelephantopus spicatus (Juss. ex Aubl.) J. B. Rohr
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; weed with pinkish fls.: 27417; Z 35. "Chicoria"

78. Pseudelephantopus spiralis (Less.) Cronquist
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; weed with pinkish fls.: 29068; Filskov 37078*.

79. Pseudogynoxys sonchoides (Kunth) Cuatrec.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; decumbent, fls. orange: 29033*.

80. Schistocarpha eupatorioides (Fenzl) Kuntze
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; herb to 1.5 m, fls. yellow: 27085.

81. Sigesbeckia jorullensis Kunth
     Sec. for., clearings, 1200-1800 m; herb with yellow fls.: 30221, 31883; Z 206; Filskov 37126*.

82. Smallanthus riparius (Kunth) H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1150-1250 m; herb to 2 m, fls. yellow: 28297*, 28802*. "Polaco"

     [Sonchus oleraceus L., from roadsides between Calacalí & Nanegalito, 2250 m: Croat 72859, is 2' east of our boundary.]

83. Stevia cf. andina B. L. Rob.
     Prim. for., Auca, 2250 m; herb 0.5 m, fls. white: 32824.

84. Stevia elatior Kunth
     Mossy banks, 2000-2250 m; herb 0.3-0.5 m, fls. white: 31857.

85. Tagetes multiflora Kunth
     Banks, 2300 m; annual herb, fls. yellow: K 31962. "Tzintso"

86. Tagetes terniflora Kunth
     Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37038*. "Asnayuyo" "Hierba de Gallinaso"

87. Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wigg.
     Roadsides, 2000 m; fls. yellow: 31863; Cedeño 40. "Diente de león"

88. Tessaria integrifolia Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; common shrub c. 3 m, fls. white: 28293, 28973, 31090.

89. Tilesia baccata (L.) Pruski (= Wulffia baccata L.)
     Sec. for., 1150-1350 m; shrub or scrambler, fls. yellow: 27065, 28815.

90. Verbesina arborea Kunth
     Prim. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 15-20 m x 30 cm: 31780; T 145*.

91. Verbesina nudipes Blake
     Sec. scrub & woodland, Quebrada Chiquilpe, 2200-2350 m; bushy shrub or tree 3-4 m, fls. white: 32452, 32453; K 32018. [Not in CVPE.]

92. Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; common shrub c. 3 m, fls. white: 27072; Z 1, 91.

93. Vernonia sp.
     Sec. for., 1550 m; tree: G 73190.

94. Viguiera quitensis (Benth.) S. F. Blake
     Lower & upper mont. scrub, 2000-2350 m; shrub to 2 m, fls. yellow: 31861*; K 32017*; Delgado 73*.

BALANOPHORACEAE (3)
     Ref.: Hansen, B. 1983. Fl. Ecuador 19: 1-16.

1. Helosis cayennensis (Sw.) Spreng.
     Sec. for., 1175-1350 m; plants fleshy, pink to red: 27389, 27929, 27969, 28812, 32383.

2. Langsdorffia hypogaea Mart.
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; involucre reddish-brown: 31639, 31746; F 1195.

3. Scybalium depressum (Hook. f.) Eichler
     Prim. for., 2250-2500 m; stems & scales red, fls. yellow: 29153, 29457, 30586.

BALSAMINACEAE (1)

1. Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.
     Spreading on roadsides & trails, 1200-2000 m: 28355; Delgado 54. "Mirame linda"

BEGONIACEAE (1) (* det. L. B. Smith; ** det. S. F. Smith)
     Refs.: Smith, L. B., & D. C. Wasshausen. 1986. Fl. Ecuador 25: 1-65. Smith, L. B., et al. 1986. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 60: 1-584.

1. Begonia bracteosa A. DC. ?
     Sec. for., 1800 m; vine: C 13006. [Not in CVPE; determination doubtful.]

2. Begonia exalata C. DC.
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; herb, 1-2 m; fls. red & white: L 13670*.

3. Begonia foliosa Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., esp. trails & banks, 1200-2200 m: 27254, 27592, 27786, 27912, 28278, 29310, 30194, 30424; T 190; Delgado 19; Flynn 4123; Hurtado 1417 (det. M. Bjerrum); Molau & Eriksen 3048. "Llorona"

4. Begonia cf. geminiflora L. B. Sm. & Wassh.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1450-1500 m; ep. vine: 31894. [Cited only from the type in CVPE; agrees with B. dodsonii in some respects, but the large-winged fruit & long pedicel suggests greater resemblance with B. geminiflora.]

5. Begonia glabra Aubl.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; fls. white: 29289, 29335. "Hoja de sapo"

6. Begonia longirostris Benth.
     Prim., sec. & upper mont. for., often gregarious on wet banks, 1300-2600 m; terr., fls. red: 27259, 27282, 27735, 28044, 28935, 29145, 29245, 30109 (det. M. Bjerrum), 30385, 30460, 30572, 31594, 31830, 32810; F 1028; Delgado 9; Espinoza 15; Harling & Andersson 11608; Holm-Nielsen 16149*, 24449*; Suin 347.

7. Begonia maurandiae A. DC. ?
     Sec. for., 1750 m; ep. vine: 30057**.

8. Begonia parviflora Poepp. & Endl.
     Sec. for., 1250-1900 m; common, treelike, 2-5 m, fls. white: 27003, 27465, 28259, 28260, 29047, 30358, 31948; C 39725; G 73179; N 9780; Z 100.

9. Begonia pululahuana C. DC.
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; ep., fls. pink & yellow: 30225**, 32406.

10. Begonia secunda L. B. Sm. & Wassh.
     Prim. for., 1750-1900 m; ep. vine, fls. red: 27326, 28850, 31624. [Cited only from the type in CVPE; difficult to distinguish from B. maurandiae.]

11. Begonia sodiroi C. DC.
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1300-2750 m; ep. vine, fls. pink: 29104, 31525, 31841.

12. Begonia tiliifolia C. DC.
     Prim. for., 1525-2050 m; fls. white: 27138*, 28218, 28690, 29200, 30149, 31340, 32437; C 7964 (det. M. Bjerrum); Mantuano 23.

13. Begonia truncicola Sodiro ex C. DC.
     Prim. for., 2100-2275 m; vine, fls. red: 28886, 29161**, 29446**, 30045.

     [Begonia ynesiae L.B. Sm. & Wassh., Alaspongo, between Nono & Gualea, 3124 m: Mexía 7706 (type).]

14. Begonia sp. 1
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2175 m; ep. vine, fls. pink: 27957.

15. Begonia sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1550 m; terr., fls. white: G 73248.

BETULACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Furlow, J. J. 1979. Rhodora 81: 1-121, 151-248.

1. Alnus acuminata Kunth ssp. acuminata
     Woods along streams, collected at 1200-1300 m but observed above 2000 m; tree to 10 m: 30446; C 6863. "Aliso"

BIGNONIACEAE (6) (* det. A. Gentry)
     Ref.: Gentry, A. H. 1977. Fl. Ecuador 7: 1-173.

1. Arrabidaea chica (Bonpl.) B. Verl.
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; liana in canopy, fls. lilac: 31034; N 9781*. "Corivasca"

2. Delostoma integrifolium D. Don
     Sec. for., 1350-2200 m; tree 5-20 m, fls. purple-violet: 29111, 31186, 31853; F 1058, 1483; Croat 72864*; Rubio 2417. "Yaloman"

3. Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. H. Gentry
     Sec. for., 1350 m; liana, fls. yellow: 31082. "Cucharilla"

4. Schlegelia monachinoi Moldenke
     Sec. for., El Carmen to Marianitas, 1200-1250 m; tree 6 m, corolla white with purplish limb: 27300*.

5. Schlegelia sulphurea Diels ?
     Sec. for., liana, fls. white, 1300-1400 m: 27518.

6. Tourrettia lappacea (L'Hér.) Willd.
     Rip. for., 1900-2000 m; climber, fls. red: 30227, 31590, 32435.

7. Tynanthus schumannianus (Kuntze) A. H. Gentry
     Sec. for., 1630 m; tree, fls. white: G 69902*. [Not in CVPE, cf. T. polyanthus (Bureau) Sandwith.]

BIXACEAE (1)

1. Bixa orellana L.
     Cult. shrub or tree to 5 m, occ. in sec. for., c. 1200-1400 m: 31174; Filskov 37008. "Achiote"

BOMBACACEAE (5) (* det. W. Alverson)
     Ref.: Alverson, W. S. 1989. Taxon 38: 377-388.

1. Ceiba aff. salmonea (Ulbr.) Bakh.
     Sec. for., 1200-1550 m; tree to 30 m, trunk spiny: 29090, 31165, 31265. [Not in CVPE.]

2. Matisia castano H. Karst. & Triana
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 7 m: Q 117*.

3. Matisia cf. malacocalyx (Robyns & S. Nilsson) Alverson
     Prim. & sec. for., 1550-1800 m; tree 8-15 m, fls. whitish: 28211, 29372, 31146; C 39751; F 1521, 1529; G 69939, 73122, 73193; Q 116; T 194.

4. Matisia cf. soegengii Cuatrec.
     Rip. for. along Río Umachaca, 1250 m; tree 25 m: 31711 [specimen barren, requiring verification].

5. Matisia sp. 1
     Sec. for., Hacienda El Carmen, 1250 m; tree 18 m x 20 cm, fls. white: 31645.

6. Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; tree 20-25 m: 31654, 32960. "Balsa"

7. Pachira patinoi (Dugand & Robyns) Fern. Alonso
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 12 m: G 73132; Q 101.

8. Spirotheca sp.
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree, spiny trunk: G 73183*; T 197*.

BORAGINACEAE (4) (* det. J. S. Miller)
     Refs.: Miller, J. S. 1988. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 456-521; 2000. Novon 10:48-52.

1. Cordia cylindrostachya (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1250-2400 m; shrub 2-7 m, fls. white: 32803; N 9785*; Q 335*; Zak & Jaramillo 3236*.

2. Cordia cymosa (J. D. Sm.) Standl.
     Sec. for., 1300-1550 m; tree 7 m, frs. greenish-grey: 31022; [G 73160 probably belongs here].

3. Cordia hebeclada I. M. Johnst.
     Sec. for., 1300 m; tree 20 m: N 9787.

4. Cordia mexiana I. M. Johnst.
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 10 m, frs. red: Q 296*.

5. Cordia aff. spinescens L.
     Sec. for., 1250-1950 m; shrub or tree 3-6 m, fls. whitish or yellowish-green: 28105, 28180, 31617, 31949, 32764, 33592; Z 32, 193. [Our plants are atypical, with large entire lvs. & long spikes not adnate to the petiole.]

6. Cynoglossum amabile Stapf & J. R. Drumm.
     Sec. for. & clearings, 1900-2000 m; fls. blue: 28084, 30112. "No me olvides"

7. Heliotropium indicum L.
     Sec. for., clearings, 1850-1900 m; herb to 1 m, fls. lavender: 31629. "Rabo de alacrán"

8. Heliotropium rufipilum (Benth.) I. M. Johnst.
     Sec. for., 1200-1800 m; 0.5-1.5 m, fls. white: 27074, 27637, 28146, 32745; C 12433*.

9. Tournefortia fuliginosa Kunth
     Rip. & sec. for., 1600-2300 m; arborescent shrub 3-7 m, fls. white, with foetid odor: 31852, 31934, 32781; F 1268; Valenzuela 778, 791. "Escorpión"

10. Tournefortia gigantifolia Killip ex J. S. Mill.
     Sec. for., 1300-1875 m; shrub with mostly unbranched stems c. 2-4 m, fls. creamy white or greenish, sometimes purplish-tinged, with foetid odor: 29100, 30359, 31667, 31758, 31945. [Not in CVPE.]

11. Tournefortia glabra L.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; shrub 1.5 m, fls. greenish: 29313, 29986, 30311.

12. Tournefortia microcalyx (Ruiz & Pav.) I. M. Johnst.
     Sec. for., 1200-1650 m; liana, fls. white with cloying odor: 31328, 31660; T 149*.

13. Tournefortia ovalifolia Rusby ?
     Sec. for., 1400-1425 m; liana, frs. yellow: 31266. [Not in CVPE.]

14. Tournefortia ramosissima K. Krause
     Disturbed scrub, 1200-2300 m; shrub 2-2.5 m, fls. white: 31096, 32354.

15. Tournefortia scabrida Kunth
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; shrub 3 m, fls. green, frs. white: Zak & Jaramillo 3228*.

16. Tournefortia sp. 1
     Sec. rip. for., 1250 m; tree 15 m: 29058.

BRASSICACEAE (1)

1. Cardamine ovata Benth.
     Rip. for., clearings, 2000-2100 m; fls. white: 32422, 32852.

     [Brassica sp., Nanegalito, 1400 m, gardens and fields, yellow fls.: Filskov 37026.]

BRUNELLIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Cuatrecasas, J. 1970. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 2: 1-189; 1985. suppl.: 28-103.

1. Brunellia acostae Cuatrec.
     Loma Pahuamba, 2300 m; tree 7 m: F 1345.

2. Brunellia comocladifolia Humb. & Bonpl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; tree 5-15 m: 28391, 28755, 30258; N 9789; T 143; Z 235. "Cedrillo"

BUDDLEIACEAE (1)
     Refs.: Norman, E. M. 1982. Fl. Ecuador 16: 1-24; 2000. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 81:1-225.

1. Buddleia americana L.
     Sec. for., 1250-1700 m; shrub 1-2.5 m, fls. yellow: 27002, 32742. "Salvia"

CAMPANULACEAE (4) (* det. T. Lammers)
     Ref.: Jeppesen, S. 1981. Fl. Ecuador 14: 1-170.

1. Burmeistera crispiloba Zahlbr.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2750 m; scandent shrub 2-4 m, fls. green or purplish: 27058, 27096, 27772, 27837, 28243, 28325, 28945, 28947, 29157, 29352, 29443, 30017, 30455, 30545, 33602; F 1021; G 69945; T 157. [Variable; some specimens with longer peduncles (e.g., 28945, 29443) may represent B. sodiroana Zahlbr.]

2. Burmeistera glabrata (Kunth) Benth. & Hook. ex B. D. Jacks.
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; shrub to 2 m, fls. greenish-yellow: K 31991.

3. Burmeistera multiflora Zahlbr.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2300 m; shrub 1-3 m, fls. greenish or purplish: 27234, 27548, 27670, 27833, 28073, 28323, 29187, 29382, 30041, 30133, 30340, 30464, 31607, 32848; F 1017; N 8649*; Nanegal, Karsten s.n. (type).

4. Burmeistera resupinata Zahlbr. var. heilbornii E. Wimm.
     Prim. for., 1500-1700 m; ep. or terr., fls. green to purplish-brown: N 9800*; between Alaspungo and Gualea: Heilborn 712 (type).

5. Burmeistera sodiroana Zahlbr.
     Prim. for., 1200-2000 m; scandent shrub, 2 m; calyx green, corolla dark red: N 8654*; Holm-Nielsen 24419 (det J. Luteyn); Mantuano 30 (det. N. Muchhala).

6. Burmeistera succulenta H. Karst. & Triana
     Upper mont. for., 2650-2700 m; shrub 0.5-2.5 m, stems rather succulent, fls. greenish or purplish: 31515; K 31995.

7. Centropogon aequitorialis E. Wimm.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1900-2750 m; herb or subshrub, calyx green, corolla pinkish: 27955, 30113, 30154, 30485, 30541, 31527, 31542; Cedeño 27; Montenegro 216*.

8. Centropogon calycinus Benth.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2700 m; shrub to 1.5 m, fls. magenta: C 5946 (det. J. Luteyn); K 32004.

9. Centropogon glabrifilis (E. Wimm.) Jeppesen
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; subshrub ca. 1 m, fls. orange-red: L 13660.

9. Centropogon nigricans Zahlbr.
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1300-2500 m; shrub 1.5-3 m, fls. greenish: 27673, 28233, 28328, 29208, 30486, 30578; Alvarado 410*; Cedeño 9.

10. Centropogon preslii E. Wimm.
     Upper mont. for., 2250-2750 m; scarcely woody shrub to 1 m, corolla red with yellow lobes: 31526, 32835; H 29533*.

11. Centropogon solanifolius Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2175 m; shrub 1-1.5 m, fls. scarlet: 27124, 27745, 28047, 28134, 28191, 29216, 29407, 30085, 30206, 30463; F 1067; G 73253; N 8647*; T 196; Holm-Nielsen 24431 (det J. Luteyn); Mantuano 31.

12. Centropogon subandinus Zahlbr.
     Sec. for. & upper mont. for., 1950-2500 m; shrub c. 2 m, fls. erect, corolla magenta; frs. deflexed: 32387; F 1298; L 13634 (det. S. Jeppesen).

13. Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G. Don
     Roadsides, 1250 m; herb with white fls.: 31085. "Jazmincillo"

14. Lobelia xalapensis Kunth
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; herb with white or pale lavender fls.: 27656.

CAPPARIDACEAE (2)

1. Cleome anomala Kunth
     Sec. for., 2700 m; shrub 2 m, fls. yellow: K 32006.

2. Podandrogyne sp. (ined.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2050 m; shrub 1-3 m, fls. yellow or orange: 28330, 28691, 28707, 30118, 30217, 31028, 31184, 31559, 31570, 32958.

3. Podandrogyne brevipedunculata Cochrane
     El Pahuma, 1960 m; shrub to 3 m, "flores tomate intenso": Nicolalde 350.

4. "Podandrogyne flammea" Cochrane (ined.)
     El Pahuma, and vicinity,1800-2000 m; shrub to 1.8 m; fls. orange: Delgado 15; Holm-Nielsen 16150 (both det. T. Cochrane). [May be the same as #2.]

CAPRIFOLIACEAE (2) (* det. H. Vargas)
     Ref.: Ulloa, C., & P. M. Jørgensen. 1993. AAU Rep. 30: 116-118.

1. Sambucus peruviana Kunth
     Sec. for., 1250-1500 m; shrub 2-3 m, sometimes cult., fls. white: 27473, 27715, 28773; Filskov 37006, 37040 (last two det. P. M. Jørgensen). "Sauco", "Tilo"

2. Viburnum hallii (Oerst.) Killip & A .C. Sm.
    Prim. for., 2200-2250 m; tree 15 m: 28904*.

3. Viburnum pichinchense Benth.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2200-2750 m; shrub or tree 4-20 m, fls. white, fragrant: 28926 (det. S. Leon), 29441*, 30524*, 30604*, 32818; H 29527; K 31997*.

CARICACEAE (1)
     Refs.: Badillo, V. M. 1983. Fl. Ecuador 20: 27-48; 2000. Ernstia 10:74-79.

1. Carica longiflora V. M. Badillo (= Vasconcellea longiflora (V. M. Badillo) V. M. Badillo)
     Prim. for., 1900-2050 m; shrub to 4 m with green fls.: 29166, 31239, 31600. [Not in CVPE.]

2. Carica microcarpa Jacq. (= Vasconcellea microcarpa (Jacq.) A. DC.)
     ssp. baccata (Heilborn) V. M. Badillo
     Prim. for., 1650-2000 m; shrub 1-6 m, fls. green, frs. orange: 30388, 30611, 31132; Q 297; T 155 (last two det. V. M. Badillo). "Col de monte"

3. Carica pubescens Lenné & Koch (= Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis V. M. Badillo)
     Sec. for., 1600-2100 m; shrub or small tree 2-5 m; frs. angled, inflated, orange: 31215, 32441, 32779; C 13074 (det V. van den Eynden). "Babaco"

CARYOPHYLLACEAE (4)

1. Arenaria lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb.
     Sec. for., banks, 1150-1600 m; weak-stemmed herb, fls. white: 27628, 28824, 31698, 32794.

2. Cerastium sp.
     Banks of Río Pichán, 1900 m; stems spreading, petals white: 32397.

3. Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult.
     Sec. for., banks, 1150-2100 m; sprawling herb, fls. white: 27385, 27407, 28825, 32404. "Alverjilla"

4. Drymaria ovata Willd. ex Schult.
     Sec. for., 2000-2100 m; stems flaccid, fls. white: 31534; Delgado 18.

5. Stellaria cuspidata Willd. ex Schltdl.
     Upper mont. for., 2750-2800 m; scrambling herb, fls. white: 31532.

6. Stellaria ovata Willd. ex Schltdl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1675 m; fls. white: 29040, 30357, 33641?; Filskov 37077 (det. J. Madsen, confirmed by P. Sklenar).

7. Stellaria prostrata Baldwin ex Elliot
     Mossy banks in sec. for., 2000 m; scrambling herb, fls. white: 31855; Delgado 74. [Not in CVPE, perhaps S. debilis d'Urv.]

CECROPIACEAE (2) (* det. C. C. Berg)
     Ref.: Berg, C. C. 1978. Taxon 27: 39-44.

1. Cecropia angustifolia Trécul
     El Pahuma and vicinity, 1700-1960 m; tree to 20 m x 20 cm, fls. cream: Holm-Nielsen 24409*; Nicolalde 325*.

2. Cecropia gabrielis Cuatrec.
     Prim. for., 1500-1960 m; tree to 30 m: 32949; G 69901*, 73169*; Q 65*; Nicolalde 331*.

3. Cecropia maxima Snethl.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 12 m, barren: F 1564*.

4. Cecropia monostachya C. C. Berg
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; common tree 5-12 m, spikes solitary: 27296*, 27635*, 27689*, 32925; Z 119. [Although listed in CVPE as a synonym of Cecropia gabrielis, the lower elevational plants appear distinct at Maquipucuna.] "Guarumo"

5. Cecropia aff. radlkoferiana A. G. Richt.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; tree 10 m, not common: 28167*. [Not in CVPE.]

6. Cecropia reticulata Cuatrec.
     5-10 km above Nanegalito, on road from Nono to Pacto, 00° 00' N 78° 40' W, 1700 m; tree 20 m, lvs. with red veins beneath: Holm-Nielsen 24410*.

7. Pourouma minor Benoist ?
     Sec. for., 1250 m: 29908 [specimen barren & determination dubious].

CELASTRACEAE (2)

1. Maytenus macrocarpa (Ruiz & Pav.) Briq.
     Prim. for., 1900-2250 m; tree 5-6 m, fls. green: 30093, 30232.

2. Perottetia multiflora Lundell
     Sec. for., 1550 m; arborescent shrub 8 m: 29254.

CHENOPODIACEAE (1)

1. Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
     Roadside and field weed, 1400-2000 m: 31231; Filskov 37028(?). "Bocino", "Paico"

CHLORANTHACEAE (1) (* det. C. Todzia)
     Ref.: Todzia, C. 1990. Fl. Ecuador 40: 1-31.

1. Hedyosmum cuatrecasanum Occhioni
     Sec. for., 1400-2450 m; tree 12-20 m: C 39724; F 1318; Q 46*; Nicolalde 365*. "Tarqui"

2. Hedyosmum goudotianum Solms var. goudotianum
     Prim. for., 2200-2250 m; tree to 6 m: 28930*.

3. Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Don
     Sec. for., 1000-2000 m; tree 4-15 m: 27010*, 28353, 28929, 29311*, 32936; C 12417*; V 12260*, 12312*.

4. Hedyosmum sprucei Solms
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 15m, odor of menthol: F 1524.

5. Hedyosmum uniflorum Todzia
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 15 m: 28684*; Q 125*; T 182*, 591*. "Guayusa"

CHRYSOBALANACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Prance, G. T. 1972. Fl. Neotrop. 9: 1-410.

1. Licania cf. durifolia Cuatrec.
     Sec. for., 1550-1700 m; tree 5 m: 31701; G 73247.

2. Licania grandibracteata Prance
     Prim. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 15 m: Q 33 (det. G. Prance).

CLETHRACEAE (1) (* det. G. Gustafson)
     Ref.: Gustafson, C. 1992. Fl. Ecuador 45: 1-26.

1. Clethra obovata (Ruiz & Pav.) Don
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2300 m; tree 8-20 m: 29449, 30518; F 1441, 1462. "Bermejo"

2. Clethra revoluta (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
     Upper mont. for., 2450-2750 m; tree 8-15 m: 30592*; F 1363; Nicolalde 366*.

CLUSIACEAE (7) (* det. J. Pipoly; ** det. B. Hammel)
     Ref.: D'Arcy, W. G. 1980. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67: 969-1043.

     [Clusiaceae are abundant in Maquipucuna forests, but probably less adequately understood than any other woody family. Most of the determinations cited here are highly provisional.]

1. Caraipa sp. ?
     Sec. for., between Cerro Negro & Río Alambi, 1335 m; tree 20 m x 70 cm with plank buttresses: 31312. [Genus not in CVPE.]

2. Chrysochlamys colombiana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.
     Prim. & rip. for., 1900-2300 m; tree 10-30 m, fls. white: 30262, 32009, 32817; Vargas 4061.

3. Chrysochlamys cf. dependens Planch. & Triana
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1950 m; arborescent shrub or tree to 20 m, without evident latex, fls. white or pink, frs. reddish: 27169, 27990, 28174, 29099, 30344, 31131, 31553, 32352, 32938, 32952; F 1092, 1095, 1533; Z 84, 134. "Cascarillon"

4. Clusia alata Triana & Planch.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2275 m; tree 5-18 m, lvs. coppery beneath, frs. reddish: 29371, 31586, 31702, 31710, 32821; C 39742; Vargas 4084, 4087 (hemiep.); El Pahuma, 2650 m; tree to 25-30 m: Nicolalde 371 (aff.). "Duco", "Matapalo"

5. Clusia crenata Cuatrec.
     Sec. & rip. for., 1200-2275 m; tree 6-25 m, latex yellow; petals white, purple within: 28542*, 31845, 32760; F 1004, 1015, 1048, 1183; C 5923**; P 3587**; V 12295*; Vargas 4088; Zak & Jaramillo 3241**. "Matapalo"

6. Clusia lineata (Benth.) Planch. & Triana
     Sec. for., 1200-1960 m; arborescent shrub or tree 5-12 m, latex cream, fls. white or pink: 27022, 27974, 30354, 31735; Z 34, 137; Nicolalde 355.

7. Clusia longistyla Cuatr.
     Prim. for., 1900-2250 m; tree 5-12 m: 28341*, 28905*, 29175*, 29419*.

8. Clusia loranthacea Planch. & Triana
     Sec. for., 1200 m; tree 8 m, latex yellow; fls. pink: V 12272*.

9. Clusia multiflora Kunth
     Loma Pahuamba, 1900-1950 m: F 1051.

10. Clusia polystigma Little
     Prim. for., 1750 m; tree 10 m: 27804*.

11. Clusia sphaerocarpa Planch. & Triana
     Sec. for., Loma Cachillacta, 1550-1600 m; arborescent shrub 4-5 m: 30431; El Pahuma, 1800 m; tree 20-25 m: Nicolalde 382.

12. Clusia thurifera Planch. & Triana
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; liana: Q 59*.

13. Clusia sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1650-1750 m; tree 5-10 m: 27565*, 29348*.

14. Garcinia madruno (Kunth) Hammel ?
     Sec. for., 1650 m; tree 7 m: 29358.

15. Hypericum silenoides Juss.
     Sec. for., 1200-2650 m; common weed, petals yellow: 27846; K 31964, 32014; Filskov 37086 (det. N. Robson).

16. Tovomita weddelliana Planch. & Triana ?
     Prim. & sec. for., 1550-1700 m; tree to 15 m, stilt roots: C 39730; G 73182.

17. Vismia baccifera (L.) Triana & Planch.
     Sec. & trans. for., 1200-1650 m; shrub or tree to 12 m, lvs. coppery beneath, fls. greenish: 27700, 31669; Z 169.

18. Vismia sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1225 m; shrub 4 m, fls. greenish: 31097. "Mancha roba"

COBAEACEAE (1)

1. Cobaea trianae Hemsl.
     Sec. for., 1800-2500 m; prostrate or climbing vine, corolla yellowish-green with purple veins: 30096, 30516; V 12336 (det. A. Prather).

CONVOLVULACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Austin, D. F. 1982. Fl. Ecuador 15: 1-98.

1. Ipomoea alba L.
     Sec. for., 1150-1250 m; vine with white fls.: 28157, 28314, 28798.

2. Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
     Sec. for. & fields, 1200-2000 m; vine spreading from cult., fls. white to pink: 27538, 28311; Delgado 36. "Camote"

3. Maripa cf. nicaraguensis Hemsl.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; flowers fallen on trail; corolla white: 31010.

CORIARIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Skog, L. 1987. Fl. Ecuador 30: 1-7.

1. Coriaria ruscifolia L. ssp. microphylla (Poir.) L. E. Skog
     Upper mont. for., above Río Pichán, 2500 m; spreading shrub 1-1.6 m, fls. greenish to purplish: 28088; Rubio 2415(?); El Pahuma 2000 m: Delgado 60(?). "Piñán", "Shansi"

CORNACEAE (1) (* det. Z. Murrell)
     Ref.: Steyermark, J. A., & R. Liesner. 1987. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 429-430.

1. Cornus peruviana J. F. Macbr.
     Upper mont. for., 1900-2750 m; tree 10-25 m, fls. whitish: 30593, 31578; F 1003, 1197, 1328; K 31969; P 3610*; Nicolalde 367; Zak & Jaramillo 3251* . "Palo de rosa"

CRASSULACEAE (3)
     Ref.: Freire Fierro, A. 2004. Fl. Ecuador 73: 3-16.

1. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken
     Banks, 1400-2000 m; lvs. succulent, fls. reddish: 32937; K 98-122.

2. Crassula venezuelensis (Steyerm.) M. Bywater
     Roadside ditches near Quebrada Santa Rosa, 2000 m; common submerged herb: 31638. [Site found destroyed in 1997.]

3. Echeveria quitensis (Kunth) Lindl.
     Banks, 2300 m; lvs. succulent: K 31959.

CUCURBITACEAE (11) (* det. D. Kearns)
     Ref.: Jeffrey, C. 1984. Fl. Suriname 5(1): 457-518.

1. Apodanthera biflora Cogn. ?
     Sec. for., 1850-2100 m; vine with green frs.: 30226, 30497, 31946. [Elevation anomalously high compared to that listed in CVPE.]

2. Cayaponia sp.
     Sec. for., 1700-2000 m; vine with light green to whitish fls., green frs.: 28023*; Holm-Nielsen 24443 (det. M. Nee). "Melón de monte"

3. Cyclanthera pedata (L.) Schrad.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; vine with yellow fls., green frs.: 27928, 28294. "Cochocho"

4. Gurania macrophylla Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1250-1675 m; liana with orange fls.: 27325*, 27632*, 31139, 31546, 31952; K 31798. "Zapallito"

5. Gurania pedata Sprague
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; vine with orange fls.: 28784*; Z 114.

6. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
     Disturbed areas, 1200-1350 m; vine with white fls.: 28678, 29383, 31020. "Calabaza"

7. Melothria longituba C. Jeffrey
     Sec. for., 1900-1950 m; vine with green or yellow fls.: 30105*, 31579.

8. Melothria pendula L.
     Sec. for., 1150-1300 m; vine with yellow fls.: 28052, 28144, 28261, 28827, 31722; Z 39, 200.

9. Posadaea sphaerocarpa Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; vine with green frs.: 28549*, 31724.

10. Psiguria cf. triphylla (Miq.) C. Jeffrey
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1750 m; vine with orange fls.: 27397*, 29039*, 30059. [Leaves all simple.]

11. Rytidostylis carthaginensis (Jacq.) Kuntze
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2000 m; vine with green fls., green explosive frs.: 27077, 27196*, 27857, 28245*, 29263, 30333, 30390, 31135, 31627; Z 209.

12. Rytidostylis glabra (Cogn.) Kuntze
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; vine with green frs.: 27970*. [Not in CVPE.]

13. Rytidostylis trianaei (Cogn.) Kuntze
     Prim. for.?, 1900-2200 m; fls. yellow-green, frs. green: Zak & Jaramillo 3240 (det. C. Jeffrey).

14. Sicydium diffusum Cogn.
     Prim. for.; vine with green fls.: Q 299.

15. Sicyos cf. kunthii Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1150-1300 m; vine with greenish fls.: 28315*, 28799, 31544, 31707; Z 182. "Cohombro"

16. Sicyos cf. warmingii Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1900-2000 m; climbing vine: 30520*. [Not in CVPE.]

CUNONIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Harling, G. 1999. Fl. Ecuador 61: 1-74.

1. Weinmannia auriculifera Hieron.
     El Pahuma, 1960 m; tree 5-6 m: Nicolalde 357 (det. J. Bradford).

2. Weinmannia cf. latifolia C. Presl
     Prim. & sec. for., 1550-2400 m; shrub or tree to 20 (30) m, lvs. simple; fls. yellowish-white: 27834, 29167, 29369, 29378, 31072, 32801; F 1100; G 69928, 73184; P 3608; Q 21, 83. [Very common in our area, although not listed for Pichincha in CVPE. Our specimens match W. latifolia in having strigose pubescence on the midrib on both leaf faces, although petioles are only slightly pubescent. The Gentry specimen 73184 was determined by Harling (1998) as W. balbisiana Kunth, and Palacios 3608 as W. macrophylla Kunth, and Quelal 21, 83 were determined by David Neill (1999) as W. macrophylla. Apparently the distinctions between W. balbisiana, W. latifolia, and W. macrophylla need to be reevaluated on the western slopes of the Ecuadorean Andes.] "Matacha"

3. Weinmannia lentiscifolia C. Presl
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2750 m; shrub 1-15 m; lvs. pinnate, rachis winged; fls. whitish: 30314, 30523; K 31971. [Our specimens agree with W. lentiscifolia in their larger lvs. mostly 10-13 cm long, with strigose rachis, and with fruiting pedicels to 4 mm long. F 1460 was determined as W. pinnata L., a species with smaller lvs. and shorter pedicels.]

DICHAPETALACEAE (2) (* det. R. Liesner)
     Ref.: Prance, G. T. 1972. Fl. Neotrop. 10: 1-84.

1. Dichapetalum cf. nervatum Cuatrec.
     Sec. for., 1400-1500 m; tree 5-10 m, frs. red: 27826*, 31177.

2. Stephanopodium angulatum (Little) Prance
     Sec. for., 1500-2450 m; tree 50 cm dbh, 30 m, fls. cream: F 1082, 1105, 1327; G 73173; Q 74*, 84*, 96 (det. G. Prance).

EBENACEAE (1)
Ref: Wallnöfer, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wein 101B: 565-592. 1999

1. Diospyros tero B. Walln.
     Sec. for., trail to Cerro Sosa, 1500 m; tree 15 m: 32964.

     [Elaeocarpaceae may be represented by Sloanea multiflora Karsten, collected between Nono & Mindo, 1300 m: Dodson et al. 15196.]

ERICACEAE (9) (* det. J. Luteyn)
     Refs.: Luteyn, J. L. 1985. Publ. Mus. Ecuat. Ci. Nat., n.s. 4: 5-8; 1991. Nordic J. Bot. 11: 623-627; 1996. Fl. Ecuador 54: 1-404. Smith, A. C. 1932. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 28: 311-511.

1. Cavendishia bracteata (Ruiz & Pav. ex St. Hil.) Hoerold
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1800-2200 m; shrub 1-4 m, bracts & fls. red, corolla with white tip: 28091, 32753; L 13663; Cedeño 14; C. Espinoza 42; Nicolalde 321*; Rojas 408; Rubio 2079*, 2421*.

2. Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerold
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1975 m; ep. shrub with pendulous branches to 3 m, greenish or pinkish fls.: 27495*, 28703*, 28779*, 31044, 31659; Øllgaard 1045*.

3. Cavendishia tarapotana (Meissner) Benth. & Hook. f. var. gilgiana (Hoerold) Luteyn
     Sec. for., banks, 1200-1550 m; shrub 1-2.5 m, bracts red, corolla white with pink or red tip: 27315*, 27828*, 30291*, 31118. "Zagalita"

4. Disterigma acuminatum (Kunth) Nied.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1700-2730 m; terr. or ep., bush or scrambling shrub 0.5-1.5 m, fls. white or pink at base: 29134*, 29458*, 30432*; H 29523*, 29547*. "Hualicón de árbol"

     [Disterigma cryptocalyx A. C. Sm., on shrubby slopes, between Nono and Nanegal, at 2300 m: Asplund 17289, is probably just south of our area.]

5. Disterigma pentandrum S. F. Blake
     El Pahuma, 1900-2000 m; ep., fleshy, purple-tipped lvs., sepals white & petals red: C. Espinoza 50; Suin 455.

6. Disterigma rimbachii (A. C. Sm.) Luteyn
     Sec. for., Loma Pahuamba, 2100 m; subshrub to 0.5 m, fls. pink, frs. purplish: 30082*; K 98-130; Nono-Nanegal Rd., Rio Alambi, km 43-45, 2500 m: Sparre 19353*.

7. Gaultheria foliolosa Benth.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2730 m; subshrub, fls. white: H 29518*.

8. Gaultheria insipida Benth.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2750-2800 m; subshrub, fls. magenta: 31504.

9. Macleania bullata Yeo
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1700-2400 m; shrub to 1.5 m with red or orange fls.: 29386*, 29470*, 30163*, 30438*, 31255, 32823; F 1513*; Luteyn 6538; Mantuano 32; [Øllgaard 100624*].

10. Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm.
     Rip. for., 2000-2550 m; shrub 1 m, corolla pale lavender with green or purple rim: 31256*, 31543; Croat 50224*. "Hualicón"

10A. Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm. x Macleania ericae Sleumer
     Cliffsides, 1800-2100 m; shrub to 2.5 m: 30081*; Luteyn & Silva 14790.

11. Macleania cordifolia Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1800-1900 m; ep. shrub, corolla pink or red with green tip: 27454*, 27747*. "Hualicón"

12. Macleania ericae Sleumer
     Sec. for., 1200-1800 m; ep. or terr., to 2 m, corolla red with green tip, frs. translucent white: 27367*, 27709*, 28963*, 30285*, 30328*, 30418*, 31026, 31893, 33609; Boeke 2341*; Luteyn 6536; Luteyn & Silva 14789 (neotype); [Øllgaard 100625*].

     [Macleania loeseneriana Hoerold was described from the "Nanegal Valley": Sodiro 92/2c, (lectotype NY); this species occurs at higher elevations than most of Maquipucuna, but might be found on Cerro Montecristi.]

13. Macleania macrantha Benth.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2150-2800 m; shrub to 2 m, sometimes ep., fls. pendent, corolla red with green tip: 29484*, 29491*, 29500*, 29512*, 30526*, 30557*, 31503; C 7188*; F 1293*; Croat 50225.

14. Macleania recumbens A. C. Sm.
     Prim. for. & trans. to sec. for., 1300-2250 m; terr. or ep. shrub to 2 m, corolla red with green lobes: 27583*, 29127*, 29344A*, 29420*, 29430*, 29442*, 31048. [25783 & 31048, at lower elevations, 1300-1465 m, have more oblong lvs. and resemble M. ericae in some respects.]

15. Macleania rotundifolia Sodiro & Hoerold
     Sec. for., near road from Nanegalito to Pacto, km 8, 00° 04' N 78° 41' W, 1600 m; ep., corolla dark red with green tip: Holm-Nielsen 24468B.

16. Pernettya prostrata (Cav.) DC.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2700-2750 m; shrub to 1 m, fls. white: K 32005. "Taglli"

17. Psammisia aberrans A. C. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1550-1800 m; shrub 2 m, sometimes climbing, corolla dark red with green lobes, frs. pink: 29344*; C 39740; G 73125*, 73180*; Luteyn & Silva 14788*; Luteyn & Lebrón-Luteyn 6535.

18. Psammisia debilis Sleumer var. debilis
     Prim. for., 2000-2700 m; climber or epiphyte, calyx red or orange, corolla white below, red to greenish above: 30151*; K 31982.

18A. Psammisia debilis var. ecuadorensis Luteyn
     Sec. for., 1900-2400 m: Luteyn & Tirira 13329(?), 13335.

19. Psammisia ecuadorensis Hoerold
     Sec. for., 1350-1900 m or more; ep., corolla red, hypanthium greenish in fr.: 29400, 30282*, 30292*; Luteyn & Tirira 13329.

20. Psammisia graebneriana Hoerold
     Nanegal: Sodiro 92/3B, Mar 1900 (syntype).

21. Psammisia sodiroi Hoerold var. sodiroi
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1600-2800 m; shrub 2 m, corolla red or purplish with green tip: 27127*, 29242*, 29425*, 29475*, 29510*, 30374*, 30415*, 30543*, 31060*, 31099*, 31197*, 31506, 32791, 32829; F 1410; H 29546*; Cedeño 13; Harling & Andersson 11624; Holm-Nielsen 24468A; Luteyn & Tirira 13331(?) ; Sparre 16770*, 17038*; Sodiro 92/4b (type). "Hualicón"

22. Psammisia ulbrichiana Hoerold
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1300-2700 m; common ep. shrub to 3 m, corolla red at base, white distally: 27103*, 27290*, 27489*, 27809*, 28322*, 28708*, 28722*, 29045*, 29143*, 29298*, 29489*, 30156*, 30283*, 30531*, 31911, 32365; C 39755; G 69923*, 73130*; Q 115*; T 168*; Holm-Nielsen 24459*; Luteyn 15145; Sparre 17025*; Suin 436.

23. Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2075 m; ep. or terr., often scandent, fls. whitish or pinkish: 27312*, 27455*, 27678, 27953, 28040*, 28067*, 28231*, 29210, 31561, 33600; Boeke 2339*.

24. Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2175 m; terr. shrub 0.5 m, fls. & berries white: 30466*, 31337(?); D 6121; T 164*; Croat 72880*; Filskov 37112*(ep.).

25. Sphyrospermum grandifolium (Hoerold) A. C. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2280-2800 m; ep., fls. red: 29148*, 29492*, 31519.

26. Sphyrospermum sodiroi (Hoerold) A. C. Sm.
     Prim. for., 1900-2200 m; ep.: Harling & Andersson 11612*; Molau & Eriksen 3043*; Suin 342, 365.

27. Sphyrospermum sp. nov., ined.
     Prim. for., 1925 m; ep.: 29192*.

28. Themistoclesia dependens (Benth.) A. C. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2375-2800 m; ep. or vine, fls. red, on long pendulous branches: 29463*, 30559*, 31501, 31505; H 29517*; K 31975; Luteyn & Tirira 13334*(?) .

29. Thibaudia floribunda Kunth
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2600-2750 m; shrub or tree to 8 m, fls. pink: 29483*, 30529*, 30551*; H 29522*. "Hualicón de árbol"

30. Thibaudia martiniana A. C. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1800-2100 m; shrub 1-2.5 m, calyx red, corolla white: 28001*, 30498*.

ESCALLONIACEAE (1)
     Refs.: Sleumer, H. 1968. Verh. Konigl. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Afd. Natuurk., II. 58: 1-146. Romoleroux, K. & A. Freire Fierro. 2004. Fl. Ecuador 73: 68-82.

1. Escallonia myrtilloides L. f. var. patens (Ruiz & Pav.) Sleumer
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2725 m; subshrub, fls. white: H 29556.

2. Escallonia paniculata (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1675-2200 m; tree 3-11 m, fls. white: 30452, 31953; F 1463.

EUPHORBIACEAE (11) (* det. G. L. Webster; ** det. B. Smith)
     Ref.: Webster, G. L., & M. Huft. 1988. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1087-1144. Secco, R. S. 2004. Fl. Neotrop. Mongr. 93: 1-194 (Alchornea).

1. Acalypha andina Müll. Arg.
     Rip. & sec. for., 2000-2350 m; shrub 1.5-2 m: 31850; K 32021.

2. Acalypha dictyoneura Müll. Arg.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2050 m; shrub 1.5-5 m, somewhat scandent: 30475, 31628, 31665, 31939. [A probable synonym is A. stellipila Pax & K. Hoffm., described from just outside our area (Gualea), and referred to a different section because of the production of terminal ? spikes.]

3. Acalypha diversifolia Jacq.
     Sec. for., 1200-1750 m; common weedy shrub 2-4 m: 27186, 27189, 28121; C 6868; F 1252, 1518; V 12326; Z 95, 208; Filskov 37031 (det. J. M Cardiel); Holm-Nielsen 24440 (det. J. M Cardiel); Nicolalde 323, 345. "Pigua", "Moquillo"

4. Acalypha macrostachya Jacq.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub 2 m: Delgado 20.

5. Acalypha platyphylla Müll. Arg.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2030 m; common shrub 0.8-4 m: 27265, 27280, 27664, 27741, 27935, 27985, 28339, 28738, 28797, 29087, 30053, 30195, 30235, 30269, 31043, 31944, 32371; C 5919; F 1027*, 1029*, 1088*; V 12330; Delgado 7; Mantuano 11; Nicolalde 342; Rojas 394.

6. Alchornea bogotensis Pax & K. Hoffm.
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; tree 8-25 m: P 3576; Zak & Jaramillo 3230 (both det. R. Secco).

7. Alchornea sodiroi Pax & K. Hoffm.
     Rip. woods, 1300 m; bushy shrub or tree 4-5 m: 30445 [the distinctive lvs. (tomentose beneath) closely match the description of Pax & K. Hoffmann, based on a Sodiro specimen from the Nanegal Valley]; El Pahuma, 1930-2275 m; 15-20 m x 31.5-35 cm DAP, frs. red: F 1050, 1077; Vargas 4090. [Secco considers this species to be a synomyn of Alchornea glandulosa Poepp. ssp. glandulosa.]

8. Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1500-2060 m; shrub or tree 5-15 m: 31207; Q 11.

     [A remarkable lacuna in our Euphorbiaceae is the complete absence of collections documenting any species of Chamaesyce. There is one record of Chamaesyce jamesonii (Boiss.) G. L. Webster from the Reserva Geobotanica Pululahua at 3100 m, 78°30' W: Cerón & Montesdeoca 7662. Although this is not close to our eastern boundary, it is possible this species may be found within the limits of the Maquipucuna area.]

9. Croton coriaceus Kunth
     Rip. for., Quebrada Santa Rosa, 1900-2000 m; tree 5 m, with clear sap: 32407**.

10. Croton "floccosus" B. A. Smith
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2200 m; tree 12-20 m, with reddish sap: 32385**, 32816**; Q 135; T 188**; B. A. Smith 306, 307; Zak & Jaramillo 3213 (?)."Sangre de drago"

11. Croton pavonis Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; shrub or tree 3-8 m, with clear sap: 27012, 28143, 29071; V 12259.

     [Euphorbia cotinifolia L., "Barrabas", is commonly cult. along hedgerows.]

12. Euphorbia laurifolia Lam.
     Hedgerows, 1400-1700 m; tree or shrub to 4 m, cyathia green: 32773. [Native to Ecuador but plants cultivated where observed in our area.] "Lechero"

13. Hyeronima fendleri Briq.
     Sec. for., 1300-1550 m; tree 7-30 m, fls. yellow-white, frs. reddish: 30407, 31036, 31113, 31879; [G 69931 & G 73224 from Cerra de Sosa probably represent the same species]. "Motilón"

14. Hyeronima macrocarpa Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1800-2250 m; tree 7-25 m, frs. red: 31209, 32832; C 7187 (det. R. Liesner); F 1034*, 1055*; Vargas 4052, 4063, 4066. "Motilón"

15. Hyeronima scabrida (Tul.) Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1750 m; tree 20 m: 30022.

16. Manihot esculenta Crantz
     Roadsides, 1150-1200 m; escaped from cult.: 28832. "Yuca"

17. Margaritaria nobilis L. f.
     Sec. for., Armenia to Loma San José, 1900-2200 m; tree 4 m: Zak & Jaramillo 3218. "Pepita de puerco"

18. Phyllanthus anisolobus Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1250-1325 m; treelet or shrub 2-3.5 m, fls. greenish-white: 31648, 31881, 32904, 32940. "Barbasco"

19. Phyllanthus niruri L.
     Sec. for., 1150-1800 m; annual herb: 27011, 28822, 32792; C 12431; Z 52.

20. Phyllanthus cf. symphoricarpoides Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 2200-2450 m; scandent shrub: 32834; F 1365(?).

21. Phyllanthus sponiifolius Müll. Arg.
     Sec. for., 1250-1800 m; clambering shrub to 3 m: 27121, 27128, 27738, 27776, 27812, 27883, 27927, 28743, 29279, 29977, 32375; C 12418, 13008, 39733; T 191.

22. Ricinus communis L.
     Sec. for. & scrub, disturbed areas, 1200 m: 28676. "Higuerilla"

23. Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong (s. lat.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1350-1750 m; tree to 10 m, latex white: 29248, 31178; C 39739; F 1505; Z 83. [Our specimens agree with Sapium pavonianum (Müll. Arg.) Huber, as interpreted by Pax & K. Hoffmann; however, that species is treated as a synonym in Kruijt's extremely broad circumscription (Biblioth. Bot. 146, 1996), which is tentatively adopted here.]

24. Sapium laurifolium (A. Rich.) Griseb.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 7 m: F 1531*.

25. Sapium stylare Müll. Arg.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1350-2300 m; tree 12-18 m, latex white: 30234; C 5930 (det. R. Liesner); F 1419; Z 152. [It is possible that the local tree represents S. verum Hemsl., but the distinctions between these two species remain to be elucidated]. "Cauchillo"

26. Tetrorchidium andinum Müll. Arg.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; tree or shrub 4-15 m: 28236, 29101, 31005, 31206, 32934; C 5921, 12436; F 1537*; G 73230; N 9796; Q 28, 30, 92, 112; V 12252; Z 98, 221.

FABACEAE (20) (* det. D. Neill; ** det. T. Pennington)
     Ref.: Macbride, J. F. 1943. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 13(3): 3-507.

1. Calliandra pittieri Standl. var. pittieri
     Sec. for., 1125-1600 m; tree 7-10 m, filaments red at tips: 28356*, 28398, 31278 (det. R. Barneby), 32796.

2. Cojoba arborea (L.) Britton & Rose (= Pithecellobium arboreum (L.) Urb.)
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750-1800 m; tree 17-20 m: F 1274*; Nicolalde 376*.

3. Crotalaria nitens Kunth
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-1250 m; weedy herb to 1 m, fls. yellow: 27305, 32943.

4. Crotalaria sagittalis L.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-1500 m; weedy herb with yellow fls.: 28399, 29034.

5. Dalea coerulea (L. f.) Schinz & Thell.
     Upper mont. scrub, above Río Pichán, 2500 m; shrub 1 m, fls. purplish: 28089. "Izo"

6. Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; common herb with white fls.: 27589, 27699; Z 21; Filskov 37061 (det. M. Blasco). "30 reales", "Hierba del dedo"

7. Desmodium axillare (Sw.) DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; herb with purplish fls.: 27303; Filskov 37085 (det. M. Blasco). "Pega-pega"

8. Desmodium campyloclados Hemsl.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; vine with white to violet fls.: 27365, 28675, 31647, 32932; L 14037 (det. M. Blasco).

9. Desmodium incanum DC.
     Sec. for., 1300-2150 m; vine with pink fls.: 27435, 27566; Z 65.

10. Desmodium intortum (Mill.) Urb.
     Clearings, 1100-2000 m; sprawling herb, fls. pinkish-purple turning blue-green: 31273, 32966; Delgado 59; Nicolalde 388.

11. Desmodium purpusii Brandegee
     Sec. for., between Marianitas & Nanegal, 1150 m; vine with white fls.: 28817 (det. N. Zaruma).

12. Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC.
     Sec. for., 1450 m; clambering vine, fls. bluish: 32965.

13. Dussia lehmannii Harms
     Prim. for., 1500-2450 m; tree 9-10 m: F 1320; G 73181; Q 100. [Records require confirmation, as all specimens are barren.]

14. Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli
     Prim. for., 1500-1950 m; tree 5-7 m, fls. green, frs. elongated: 32947; F 1110*; Q 294; Rubio 2070 (det. W. Palacios). [Appearing very similar to E. megistophylla, but lvs. smaller & frs. very different; Q 294 was determined as E. schimpfii Diels, but that is a lower-elevational species with foliage similar to E. megistophylla, and larger fls.] "Poroton"

15. Erythrina megistophylla Diels
     Sec. for., 1200-1650 m; common tree 4-10 m, fls. orange to red or greenish, frs. spherical, indehiscent: 27059, 27261, 27516, 27661, 28306*, 28805*, 30284; G 69937*, 73225*; P 12841; V 12302; Z 149; S. Espinoza 724. "Porotón"

16. Erythrina cf. smithiana Krukoff
     Sec. for., between Marianitas & Nanegal, 1200-1250 m; tree grown as living fence post, fls. red: 28296, 28686. "Caraca"

17. Inga densiflora Benth.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; common tree to 15 m, fls. white: 27372, 28274**, 28352**; Z 41, 197. "Guabo"

18. Inga nobilis Willd. ssp. quaternata (Poepp.) T. D. Penn.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1550 m; tree, fls. white: 29059; G 73172; Z 126, 218. "Cachi"

19. Inga oerstediana Benth. ex Seem.
     Sec. for., 1800-1950 m; tree 10 m, fls. white: 31940; F 1069, 1075**, 1106**.

20. Inga punctata Willd.
     Rip. for., Río Umachaca, 1250 m; tree 10: 31747*.

21. Inga sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1250 m; tree 12 m, fls. white: 31748.

22. Medicago polymorpha L.
     Roadsides, 2000 m; prostrate weedy herb, fls. yellow: 31813. "Alfafilla"

23. Melilotus indica (L.) All.
     Roadsides, 2000 m; erect weedy herb, fls. yellow: 31862. "Trébol"

24. Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. var. willdenowii (Poir.) Rudd
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; common scandent shrub, fls. pink: 27698; Z 67. "Uña de gato"

25. Mucuna cf. elliptica (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; vine with white fls.: 27095, 27621, 28317.

26. Otholobium munyense (J. F. Macbr.) J. W. Grimes
     Upper. mont. scrub, 2500-2700 m; subshrub with purplish fls.: 28086; K 32003. "Trinitaria", "Trinitaria negra"

27. Pachyrhizus tuberosus (Lam.) Spreng.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; vine with blue fls.: 28737, 31002. [Probably escaped from cultivation.] "Jícama"

28. Phaseolus coccineus L.
     Sec. for., 1200-2150 m; vine with red fls.: 30117, 31225; Croat 72900, 82710*; Delgado 44; Hurtado 1442. "Fréjol rojo"

29. Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm.
     Sec. for., 1200-1920 m; vine with white or pink fls.: 27843, 28329 (det. A. Delgado S.), 30120; N 9793; Croat 82711*; Hurtado 1435.

30. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) Benth.
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1700-1800 m; vine with purple fls.: 28045, 30462*, 31954.

31. Senna bacillaris (L. f.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby (= Cassia bacillaris L. f.)
     Sec. for., 1250 m; shrub 3 m, fls. creamy yellow: 31084, 31766; Z 106.

32. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (= Cassia occidentalis L.)
     Sec. thickets, 1200-1225 m; herb 0.5 m, fls. yellow: 31095. "Aya porotillo"

33. Spartium junceum L.
     Roadsides, c. 2000 m; shrub to 1.5 m, fls. yellow: K 32010. "Retama"

34. Trifolium repens L.
     Roadsides, 2000 m; fls. white: 31224 (det. M. Vincent). "Trébol blanco"

35. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ?
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-1250 m; clambering vine with white fls., prob. escaped from cult.: 28284.

36. Vigna cf. vexillata (L.) A. Rich.
     Sec. for., El Carmen to Est. Piscicola, 1150-1200 m; vine with yellow fls.: 28300, 28800, 29074.

FLACOURTIACEAE (3) (* det. R. Liesner)
     Ref.: Sleumer, H. O. 1980. Fl. Neotrop. Mongr. 22: 1-499.

1. Banara guianensis Aubl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; arborescent shrub or tree 3-8 m, fls. whitish or yellow, fragrant: 27057, 27067, 27251, 28342, 28975; C 12434; V 12255 (det. C. Grandez); Z 99. "Guapilte"

2. Casearia cf. aculeata Jacq.
     Sec. for., 1550 m; tree: F 1000; G 73233.

3. Casearia cajambrensis Cuatrec.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1900 m; tree 7-20 m: G 73158*; Q 93*, 292*; T 179*, 199*. [Not in CVPE.]

4. Casearia pitumba Sleumer
     Prim. for., Cerro Sosa & Loma Pahuamba, 1700-1950 m; tree to 7 m: C 39765; F 1112.

5. Casearia aff. prunifolia Kunth
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2700-2800 m; tree 5-7 m, frs. yellowish & edible: 30596, 31518. [C. mexiae, described from just outside our limits to the west, differs in distinctly crenate lvs.]

6. Casearia quinduensis Tul.
     Prim. for.?, 1900-2200 m; shrub 3 m: Zak & Jaramillo 3235*.

7. Casearia sylvestris Sw. ?
     Sec. vegetation, 1200-1500 m; tree 5-6 m: V 12248*, 12250*.

8. Xylosma benthamii (Tul.) Triana & Planch.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; shrub 1-2 m, frs. white or orange: 27988, 29985.

9. Xylosma sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1650 m; tree 4 m: 29341.

GENTIANACEAE (3) (* det. J. S. Pringle; ** det. J. R. Grant)
     Ref.: Ewan, J. Contr. 1948. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 209-249. Pringle, J. S. 1995. Fl. Ecuador 53: 1-131.

1. Centaurium erythraea Raf.
     Clearings in sec. scrub, Quebrada Chiquilpe, 2300 m; herb, fls. pink: 32449.

2. Irlbachia alata (Aubl.) Maas
     Sec. for. & banks, 1200-1500 m; herb to 1.5 m, fls. yellow-green: 27073, 28267. "Lengua de gato"

3. Macrocarpaea gattaca J. R. Grant
     Prim. for., 2100-2200 m; to 5 m: 28902** (paratype).

4. Macrocarpaea sodiroana Gilg
     Sec. for., 1200-1650 m ; to 3 m, fls. greenish-yellow: 27733*, 29065**, 29339**, 31122, 31346**, 31550**; Harling & Andersson 11575*; G 69921; T 154**.

GERANIACEAE (1)

1. Geranium laxicaule R. Knuth
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; herb 0.4 m, fr. black: Delgado 53.

     [Pelargonium sp., Nanegalito, 1400 m; cult.: Filskov 37027. "Geranio"]

GESNERIACEAE (9) (* det. L. E. Skog; ** det. J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog; Mendoza colls. det. L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog)
     Refs.: Wiehler, H. 1982. Selbyana 6: 1-219. Skog, L. E. 1982. Selbyana 7(1): 94-99; 1987. Opera Bot. 92: 225-233. Skog, L. E. & L. P. Kvist. 2000. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 59: 1-118 [Gasteranthus].

1. Alloplectus dodsonii Wiehler
     Prim. for., 2100-2150 m; shrub to 1 m, bracts red, corolla pale yellow: 29172*.

2. Alloplectus aff. grandicalyx J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; fls. red with white tones: Mantuano 24**.

3. Alloplectus herthae Mansf.
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1200-2600 m; clambering shrub, sometimes ep., fls. yellow or orange: 27130, 27546*, 27864, 28048, 28326*, 29384*, 30018, 30381*, 30570*; T 195*; Cedeño 5**; Croat 82769; C. Espinoza 36; Filskov 37071 (det. L. P. Kvist); Mendoza 506; Suin 423*. (Many specimens were determined as Alloplectus bolivianus (Britton) Wiehler.)

4. Alloplectus oblongicalyx J. L. Clark & L. E. Skog
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; shrub 1.5 m, calyx reddish: 30250**; Clark 7654; MacBryde 100 (all paratypes). [Not in CVPE.]

5. Alloplectus panamensis C. V. Morton
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrubs 3 m, calyx purple, corolla red: Rojas 393**.

6. Alloplectus purpureus L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; ep. shrub, calyx green, corolla yellow: 27021*, 27137, 27490, 27503*, 27904*, 27976*, 28685*, 28775*, 29309, 30264*, 30427*; V 12261*; Mendoza 507. "Hierba negro"

7. Alloplectus sprucei (Kuntze) Wiehler
     Prim. for., Loma Pahuamba, 2460 m; shrub 0.5 m, corolla yellow: F 1349.

8. Alloplectus tenuis Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; terr. or ep., calyx yellow, corolla red, fr. yellow: 28724*, 29168*, 29241*, 31596, 32369; F 1030; T 184*; Delgado 47*; Nicolalde 349*.

9. Alloplectus tetragonoides Mansf.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2500 m; ep. or terr. shrub to 1.5 m, calyx green or red to purplish, corolla orange to red: 27324*, 28939*, 29158*, 29189*, 29412*, 30107*, 30479*, 30577*, 31605, 32408, 32814.

10. Alloplectus aff. tetragonus (Hanst.) Hanst.
     Rip. for., Reserva Pahuama, 1900 m; ep., calyx maroon, corolla scarlet: 31597*.

11. Alloplectus teuscheri (Raymond) Wiehler
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2300 m; shrub, usually ep. & scandent, to 2 (4) m, calyx reddish or purplish, corolla yellow or orange: 27680*, 27810*, 27836*, 28024*, 28814*, 28883*, 28936, 29199*, 29215*, 29426*, 30103*, 30145*, 30183, 31241*, 31245*, 31591*, 31822*, 31825*, 31827*, 31833*; C 5951*; P 3581*; Delgado 50; Mantuano 26**.

12. Besleria angustiflora Fritsch
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2750 m; shrub or tree to 10 m, fls. orange: 27172*, 27570*, 28892*, 28910*, 29171*, 29459*, 30500*, 30547*, 32808; H 29543*; Cedeño 17**; C. Espinoza 16 (ep.).

13. Besleria solanoides Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2150 m; shrub or tree to 8 m, fls. orange: 28692*, 28202, 30058*, 31656; C 39753; F 1291; N 9804; G 73129*, 73153*; Mendoza 508.

14. Besleria cf. tambensis C. V. Morton
     Sec. upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; shrub to 1.7 m, fls. orange: K 31994*. [Not in CVPE.]

15. Capanea affinis Fritsch
     Prim. for., 1200-2600 m; fls. violet: T 151*; Cedeño 29**; C. Espinoza 17 (det G. Toasa).

16. Columnea angustata (Wiehler) L. E. Skog
     Loma Pahuamba, 1950-2000 m; herb to 0.4 m, corolla deep pink: F 1193.

17. Columnea byrsina (Wiehler) L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Sec. for., 1500-2000 m; ep. or terr., corolla orange-pink to purple: 27962*, 31571*, 32379.

18. Columnea ciliata (Wiehler) L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2100 m; ep. shrub, sometimes scandent, fls. red or purple: 27140*, 27470, 27478*, 27789, 28178, 28776*, 28895*, 28938*, 29160*, 30364, 31116, 32928; Q 336*; T 193*; Mendoza 505, 512.

19. Columnea crassicaulis (Wiehler) L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep., fls. yellow: V 12307*.

20. Columnea eburnea (Wiehler) L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1750 m; ep. or terr., lvs. red beneath at tip, bracts yellow or greenish, corolla white: 27841*, 28277*, 29126*, 33581; G 73207*; Mendoza 502, 509.

21. Columnea katzensteinii (Wiehler) L. E. Skog & L. P. Kvist
     Prim. for., 2000 m; ep., fls. red: 30162**.

22. Columnea kucyniakii Raymond
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2050 m; terr, ep. or clambering shrub, lvs reddish to purplish beneath, fls. pendent, calyx green, corolla yellow: 30379**, 31140**, 31198**; C 5932**; G 73202**; P 3619**; Clark 7074; Delgado 58**.

23. Columnea mastersonii (Wiehler) L. E. Skog & L. P. Kvist
     Sec. for., 1250-1650 m; ep., lvs. red at tip, bracts whitish or pale yellow, corolla white: 27035*, 31063*, 31123*, 31347*.

24. Columnea medicinalis (Wiehler) L. E. Skog & L. P. Kvist (incl. C. densibracteata L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2100 m; ep., bracts reddish at base, corolla yellow with red lobes: 29193*, 29244*, 30131*, 31684; F 1246; P 3609*; Suin 362**.

25. Columnea ovatifolia L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Prim. for., 2000-2500 m; ep., fls. pink or red: 30162*, 30583*.

26. Columnea picta H. Karst.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; ep., leaf tip red beneath, bracts yellow with purple spots, corolla yellow: 27070*, 27247, 27255, 27399, 27791, 27808, 27852*, 28053*, 28225*, 28696?, 29064*, 29195*, 29234, 29555, 30055*, 30327*, 30402*; C 5917*; F 1019; N 8659*; Q 129*; Filskov 37053 (det. L. P. Kvist); Mendoza 503; Rojas 399**; Suin 363**. "Punta de lanza"

27. Columnea rileyi (Wiehl.) J. F. Sm.
     Sec. for. 1500-1600 m; ep., calyx green, corolla red with 2 yellow lobes: Clark 7077.

28. Columnea strigosa Benth.
     Prim. for., 1500-2500 m; ep. or clambering shrub, fls. pendent, calyx green, corolla orange: 28878*, 28918, 29128, 29183, 29198, 29438, 29451, 30582, 31191*; F 1018*, 1384*; P 3607; T 601*; Valenzuela 779**, 785**.

29. Columnea tandapiana (Wiehler) L. E. Skog & L. P. Kvist
     Sec. for. remnants, Nanegal, 1300-1600 m; ep., calyx green, corolla yellow: V 12298*; Clark 7076.

30. Diastema affine Fritsch
     Banks, sec. for., 1300-1500 m; terr., fls. white: 27379*, 27766, 27871*, 32974.

31. Diastema incisum Benth.
     "In umbrosis frigidis declivitatis occidentalis Andium Quitensium versus Nanegal.": Hartweg 1265 (type).

32. Diastema racemiferum Benth.
     Banks, sec. for., 1300-1475 m; terr., fls. white with purple spots: 27176, 30386, 32972.

33. Drymonia brochidodroma Wiehler
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; terr., subshrub 0.5 m, bracts green, corolla white, frs. red: 27194*, 27332, 27674*, 28201*, 28713*, 28768*, 28863, 31556*, 31743*. "Labios de puta"

34. Drymonia ecuadorensis Wiehler
     El Pahuma, 1900 m; ep., fls. yellow: C. Espinoza 47.

35. Drymonia macrophylla (Oerst.) H. E. Moore
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep.: 31172*.

36. Drymonia urceolata Wiehler
     Prim. for., 2100 m; shrub, bracts green or reddish: 29155*.

37. Gasteranthus lateralis (C. V. Morton) Wiehler
     Prim. & sec. for., 1700-2300 m; herb 0.3-1 m, calyx green, corolla orange: 27134*, 27274*, 30038*, 30147, 30197, 31573, 31589*, 32847; F 1406; Delgado 11**; Hurtado 1416. [Specimens from higher elevations within the listed range were commonly determined as Gasteranthus aff. pansamalanus (J. D. Sm.) Wiehler.]

38. Gasteranthus oncogastrus (Hanst.) Wiehler
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1750 m; herb or subshrub to 1 m with orange or brick red fls.: 27141, 27794*, 28782*, 30331*."Campanita"

39. Gasteranthus pansamalanus (Donn. Sm.) Wiehler
     Sec. for., 2000-2500 m; terr., herb to 0.5 m, calyx white, corolla red-orange: 32847; F 1406*; Delgado 49**; Suin 496**. "Campanita"

40. Gasteranthus quitensis Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2150 m; herb with red fls.: 27125, 27236, 27792*, 27896*, 28138*, 29236*, 29237*, 30139*, 30265*, 32973; C 12403*; F 1016; G 73195*; N 8656*; V 12285*; Delgado 4**; Dodson 15748*; Filskov 37090 (det. L. P. Kvist); Suin 351**. "Zapotito rojo" "Escapin de niño"

41. Gasteranthus sp. 1
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 2000-2100 m; herb, fls. red: 30480*, 30493*.

42. Heppiella ulmifolia (Kunth) Hanst.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2725 m; herb or shrub, sometimes scandent, fls. red: 27366*, 28348, 29497, 30421*, 30555*, 31810; Holm-Nielsen 24447 (det. L. P. Kvist); Mendoza 504. "Oquilla"

43. Kohleria spicata (Kunth) Oerst.
     Mossy banks, El Carmen to Marianitas, 1200-1250 m; corolla red: 27078, 27627A*; C 6867*; El Pahuma, 2000 m; Delgado 70**. "Oreja de conejo"

44. Kohleria villosa (Fritsch) Wiehler var. anisophylla (Fristsch) L. P. Kvist & L. E. Skog
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2250 m; corolla red: 28881*, 29069*, 29142*; Mendoza 510.

44A. Kohleria villosa (Fritsch) Wiehler var. villosa
     Sec. for., 1200-1650 m; herb or vine, corolla pinkish to red: 27193*, 27627*, 27882*, 27893*, 29080*, 30037*; Mendoza 501.

GUNNERACEAE (1) (* det. L. E. Mora-Oseja)
     Ref.: Mora-Osejo, L. E. 1984. Flora de Colombia 3: 1-178.

1. Gunnera aequatoriensis L. E. Mora
     Dry slopes, Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m: Asplund 17266 (type) [possibly just south of area].

2. Gunnera atropurpurea L. E. Mora var. atropurpurea
     Prim. & sec. for., clearings, 2000-2750 m; herb to 2.5 m, lvs. < 1 m across: 29162*, 30499*, 30538*, 31249; H 29536. [Not in CVPE.]

3. Gunnera brephogea Linden & André var. magna (L. E. Mora) L. E. Mora
     Sec. for., clearings, 1600-2100 m; herb to 2 m, lvs. 1 m across: 27153*.

HIPPOCASTANACEAE (1) (* det. G. T. Prance)
     Refs.: Hardin, J. W. 1957. Brittonia 9: 175-178. Ulloa, C. & P. Jørgensen. 2001. Novon 11: 287.

1. Billia rosea (Planch. & Linden) C. Ulloa & P. Jørg.
     Sec. for., 1700-2275 m; tree to 25 m X 56 cm, calyx green, corolla creamy-white, anthers orange, frs. red to wine-colored (brown): 29178, 30233 (det. G. Nesom), 30243*, 30515, 31928; F 1013, 1040, 1081, 1261, 1553; Vargas 4056, 4083; Zak & Jaramillo 3222 (det. M. Merello).

HIPPOCRATEACEAE (1)

1. Salacia cf. cordata (Miers) Mennega
     Rip. for. near waterfall, Sendero Unión de los Ríos, 1300-1350 m; tree 10 m: 32380 (det. with aid of C. Cerón).

HYDRANGEACEAE (1) (* det. A. Freire-Fierro)
     Refs.: McClintock, E. 1957. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. IV. 29: 147-256. Freire-Fierro, A. 2004. Fl. Ecuador 73: 25-40.

1. Hydrangea peruviana Moric. ex DC. var. peruviana
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1650 m; common liana to 15 m, glabrescent, lvs. remotely denticulate, bracts & fls. red: 27608*, 28335*, 30392; (G 69919; K 31803 not determined to variety).

1A. Hydrangea peruviana Moric. ex DC. var. oerstedii (Briq.) Friere-Fierro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1650 m; common liana to 15 m, pubescent, lvs. remotely denticulate, bracts & fls. red: 27062*, 30003, 31032, 31106; G 73174*; N 8643**; T 207**, 593**.

2. Hydrangea preslii Briq.
     Prim. for., 1250-2000 m; climber, lvs. entire, fls. yellow-green: 30231*, 32386*. (Prevously determined as H. tarapotensis Briq. by E. McClintock.)

ICACINACEAE (1)

1. Citronella incarum (J. F. Macbr.) R. A. Howard
     Prim. for., 1750-2300 m; tree 15-28 m: 28488 (det. C. Cerón), 28908; F 1226; Vargas 4068, 4079.

LAMIACEAE (6) (* det. R. M. Harley)
     Ref.: Epling, C. 1935-7. Repert. Spec. Nov. Beih. 85(1): 1-96; 85(2): 97-192; 85(4): 289-341.

1. Hyptis atrorubens Poit.
     Disturbed wet areas, 1125-1300 m; herb with white fls.: 31275; Z 12.

2. Hyptis obtusiflora C. Presl ex Benth.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; herb to 1.5 m, fls. white: 27374, 27419, 29868, 31742; Z 49. "Hierba de chancho"

3. Hyptis pectinata Poit.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; herb with white fls.: 28272. "Poleo"

4. Hyptis sidifolia (L'Hér.) Briq.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; herb 1.5 m, fls. lavender: 27082; Z 121; Holm-Nielsen 24456*.

5. Lepechinia betonicifolia (Lam.) Epling
     Banks in upper mont. for., 2750-2800 m; shrub 1 m, fls. white: Øllgaard 98988; 1200-1400 m; cult.: C 6872*; Filskov 37042 (det. R. M. Harley & S. Atkins). "Matico"

6. Lepechinia bullata (Kunth) Epling
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; shrub 3-4 m; fls. white: L 13655 (det. P. M. Jorgensen).

     [Mentha sp., Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37039*. "Hierba buena"]

6. Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb.
     Sec. & upper mont. scrub, 1550-2500 m; herb 1 m, fls. white: 28096, 31915, 32765. "Tipo"

     [Ocimum campechianum Mill., Nanegalito, 1400 m: Filskov 37014*, is doubtless cultivated. "Albaca"]

     [Origanum sp., Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37033*. "Oregano"]

7. Salvia macrophylla Benth.
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; herb with blue fls.: 27075, 31730, 32758; Z 232.

8. Salvia quitensis Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2225 m; shrub or climber to 3.5 m, fls. pinkish: 27364, 27591, 30092, 31848; C 12989; Delgado 69.

9. Salvia scutellarioides Kunth
     Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1200-1400 m; fls. blue or white: Filskov 37045*, 37070*. "Ruda"

10. Scutellaria coccinea Kunth (incl. Scutellaria atriplicifolia Benth.)
     Sec. for., 1100-1300 m; herb with purplish fls.: 27264, 27277, 27665, 28830, 29270, 30325; Filskov 37127 (det. A. Paton).

11. Stachys lamioides Benth.
     Sec. for., 1150-2000 m; herb with red fls.: 29073, 30318, 32849.

12. Stachys micheliana Briq.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; herb with white fls.: 27428, 31882; Z 166. "Pedorrera"

LAURACEAE (9) (* det. H. van der Werff; ** det. J. Rohwer; *** det. F. G. Lorca-Hernández)
     Refs.: Rohwer, J. G. 1986. Mitt. Inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 20: 1-278; 1993. Fl. Neotrop. 60: 1-322.

1. Beilschmiedia alloiphylla (Rusby) Kosterm.
     Sec. for., 1200 m; tree 25 m, fls. green: V 12256, 12289; El Pahuma, 2275 m; tree 14-25 m: Vargas 4057, 4058, 4059, 4060, 4075, 4078.

2. Beilschmiedia costaricensis (Mez & Pittier) C. K. Allen
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 20 m, fls. yellowish: T 141; V 13368 (det. Sa. Nishida). [Not in CVPE.]

3. Beilschmiedia tovarensis (Meisn.) Sa. Nishida
     Sec. for., 1300 m; tree 25 m, fls. pale yellow: N 9782 (det. Sa. Nishida); [V 13377 (det. Sa. Nishida) was collected just south of our area.]. [Not in CVPE.]

4. Caryodaphnopsis theobromifolia (A. H. Gentry) van der Werff & H. G. Richt.
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1375-1400 m; tree 10 m, lvs. with wintergreen odor: 31315*. "Caoba"

5. Cinnamomum triplinerve (Ruiz & Pav.) Kosterm.
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; tree 12-15 m, fls. white, with foetid odor, cupules red: 31313***; T 590***; V 12315***.

6. Licaria applanata van de Werff
     Loma Pahuamba, 1850-1900 m; tree 10 m: F 1001; [V 13372 & 13381 were collected just south of the floristic boundary].

7. Nectandra acutifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 5-25 m, fls. white: 31037*; C 12440*; N 9779*; Q 133*; T 186*; V 12234, 12246, 13367. "Canelo", "Pacche"

8. Nectandra asplundii C. K. Allen
     Los Puentes, near Nanegal, 1200 m: Asplund 17257 (type). [May be an unpublished name.]

9. Nectandra laurel Nees
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1950 m; tree 8-30 m, fls. white: 28753*, 32757*; F 1063 (det. W. Palacios); P 3618*; Q 80*, 87*; T 160*; V 12297, 13388, 13407; Holm-Nielsen 24422**.

10. Nectandra longifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Nees
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; tree 10 m, fls. white: P 3617*.

11. Nectandra membranacea (Sw.) Griseb.
     Sec. for., 1300-2200 m; tree 6-20 m, fls. white: 29357*, 31885; C 39772; N 9775*; P 3620**; Rubio 2420*; Zak & Jaramillo 3225**. "Aguacatillo"

12. Nectandra obtusata Rohwer
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2200 m; tree 12-30 m, fls. white: 30089; F 1256*, 1275*; G 69920*; Q 2 (det. J. Guevara); V 12230, 12232, 12296; Holm-Nielsen 24433**.

13. Nectandra purpurea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez
     Sec. for., 1400 m; tree 6 m, lvs. slightly aromatic, fls. white, slightly fragrant: 31263*.

14. Nectandra sp.1
     Sta. Lucia, 1435 m: 31760.

15. Ocotea benthamiana Mez
     Upper mont. for., 2400-2700 m; tree to 15 m: 29471*, 30597*.

16. Ocotea cf. cernua (Nees) Mez
     Rip. for., 1250-1300 m; tree 4-15 m, fls. green, fr. with red cupule: 29057; K 31806; V 12237, 13398.

17. Ocotea floccifera Mez & Sodiro
     Nanegal: Sodiro 143/4 (Aug 1874) (type).

18. Ocotea floribunda (Sw.) Mez
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1600 m; tree 10-20 m, fls. yellowish-white: T 603*; V 12277; El Pahuma, 2275 m; tree 18 m DAP to 17.9 cm: Vargas 4070, 4072, 4085.

19. Ocotea fuliginosa Sodiro
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree 20 m: C 39743. [Not in CVPE.]

20. Ocotea insularis (Meisn.) Mez
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; tree 12 m, fls. green: V 12247; Holm-Nielsen 24465B*.

21. Ocotea oblonga (Meissner) Mez
     Sec. for., 1200 m; tree 15 m, fls. white: V 12279.

22. Ocotea rugosa van der Werff
     Sec. for., 1500-1600 m; tree 15 m: Q 52*; V 13366.

     [Ocotea smithiana O. Schmidt, F 1139, is at 00° 01' S 78° 38' W, 1940 m.]

23. Ocotea stenoneura Mez & Pitt.
     Sec. for., 1200 m; tree 10-15 m, fls. green, fragrant: V 12269, 12282, 12284.

24. Persea americana Mill.
     Sec. for., near Marianitas, 1200 m; tree 15 m: 28679. [Apparently introduced.] "Aguacate"

25. Persea areolatocostae (C. K. Allen) van der Werff
     Sec. for., 1650 m; tree 5 m: 29360*.

26. Persea caerulea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez
     Prim. for., Loma Pahuamba, 2300 m; tree 20 m: F 1456.

27. Persea mutisii Kunth
     Prim. for., 1700-2500 m; shrub 6-10 m: C 39759; V 12337.

28. Persea aff. pseudofasciculata Kopp
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree 25 m: C 39750. [Two additional specimens, F 1157 & V 13390, were collected just south of our boundary at 1600-1950 m.]

29. Pleurothyrium giganthum van der Werff
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1500 m; tree 8 m, bark aromatic: 31762* [barren specimen; identification tentative].

30. Rhodostemonodaphne cyclops Madriñán
     Prim. for., 1750 m; tree 8 m, fls. white: F 1228 (det. A. Chanderbali).

     [Several additional collections of Lauraceae remain unidentified.]

LECYTHIDACEAE (3) (* det. S. Mori)
     Ref.: Prance, G. T., & S. Mori. 1979. Fl. Neotrop. 21: 141-236.

1. Eschweilera integrifolia (Ruiz & Pav. ex Miers) R. Knuth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1550-1800 m; tree 10-20 m, fls. pendent, deep pink: 30355*, 30425*, 33591; C 39729; G 73246; Z 120. [According to Dr. Mori (pers. com.), this is an upper elevational record for this species.]

2. Eschweilera cf. caudiculata R. Knuth
     Prim. for., 1900 m; flowers (on trail) yellowish: 29044. [Another collection, Z 120, from lower sec. for., may possibly represent the same species.]

3. Grias cf. multinervia Cuatrec.
     Sec. for., 1350-1450 m; sparsely branching tree 8-10 m; petals creamy-white with reddish tinge: 31755. [32357 may represent a sapling of this species.] "Jagua lechosa"

4. Gustavia cf. dodsonii S. A. Mori
     Prim. & sec. for., 1325-1700 m; tree 4-12 m; fls. fragrant, whitish tinged with pink: C 39769; G 69930; K 31793. (Gentry specimen identified as G. pubescens Ruiz & Pav.) "Membrillo"

5. Gustavia cf. longifolia Poepp. ex Berg
     Sec. for., 1600 m; sparsely branching shrub 2 m, lvs. 1.5-2 m long, frs. green with edible pulp: 31778.

6. Gustavia sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1875 m; shrub 2.5 m, frs. green: 30389.

LOASACEAE (2)
     Refs.: Poston, M. S., & J. W. Nowicke, Syst. Bot. 15: 671-678. 1990. Weigend, M. 2000. Fl. Ecuador 64: 1-92.

1. Klaprothia mentzelioides Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1800-2500 m; flaccid weed with white fls.: 30179, 31609, 32851; C 12996; L 13668 (det. M. Poston); Harling & Andersson 11578.

    [Nasa aequatoriana (Urb. & Gilg) Weigand in Jorgensen & Léon, between Nono and Nanegal, 17 km nw of Nono, 2000 m: Croat 38845; on road from Nono to Tandayapa and Nanegal, 16 km from Nono, 2100 m: Molau & Eriksen 2218.]

2. Nasa peltiphylla (Weigend) Weigend
     Between Nono and Nanegal, Rio Alambi, km 43-45, 2200-2500 m: Sparre 15968.

3. Nasa triphylla spp. papverifolia (Kunth) Weigend (= Loasa triphylla Juss.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1900 m; herb to 1.5 m with urticating hairs, fls. white: 27609, 29274, 30111; C 12412; Z 212, 233. "Ortiga borracho", "Pringamoza"

LOGANIACEAE (1) (* det. R. Liesner, **det. F. J. Fernández Casas)

1. Spigelia multispica Steud.
     Rip. for., 1350-1450 m; herb with whitish fls.: 30268.

2. Spigelia pedunculata Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2100 m; shrubby herb to 1.3 m, fls. dull pink: 29085, 30078, 31182, 32584; C 5904*, 5918*; P 3588*; F 1251**, 1750**; Croat 82699**; Delgado 3**; Suin 372.

LORANTHACEAE (5) (* det. J. Kuijt)
     Ref.: Kuijt, J. 1986. Fl. Ecuador 24: 113-197.

     [Dendrophthora chrysostachya (C. Presl) Urb., collected between Nono & Nanegalito: Laegaard 51814, is 2.5' south of our area.]

1. Dendrophthora lindeniana Tiegh.
     Sec. for., 2000 m; ep., frs. white: L 14043.

2. Gaiadendron punctatum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. Don
     Upper mont. for., 2500-2700 m; tree 6 m, frs. greenish-white: 30603. "Matial"

3. Oryctanthus alveolatus (Kunth) Kuijt
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep., parasitic on Allophylus, fls. green: 29037.

4. Phoradendron chrysocladon A. Gray
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., frs. yellow: Nicolalde 377*.

5. Phoradendron dipterum Eichler
     Nanegal, 1300 m; ep. shrub with red frs.: V 12321*.

6. Phoradendron parietarioides Trel.
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; ep.: V 12322*; C. Espinoza 46.

7. Phoradendron piperoides (Kunth) Trel.
     Sec. for., 1300-1780 m; ep.: 27253*; Harling & Andersson 11601.

8. Phoradendron undulatum (Pohl ex DC.) Eichler
     Sec. for., 1150-1300 m; ep.: 27653*, 31014*, 31261*, 32902; Wiens 3703.

9. Struthanthus aequatoris Kuijt
     Sec. for., 1250-2200 m; ep., stems vine-like, fls. greenish yellow, berries dull red: 30484*, 31937; Zak & Jaramillo 3221*.

10. Struthanthus leptostachyus (Kunth) G. Don
     Sec. for., 1200-1350 m; ep. shrub or vine, fls. whitish or yellowish: 27310*, 28123*, 28682*, 29036*, 29117*, 31175*; V 12303*.

LYTHRACEAE (1) (* det. A. Lourteig)
     Ref.: Lourteig, A. 1989. Fl. Ecuador 37: 1-47.

1. Cuphea racemosa (L. f.) Spreng.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-2000 m; weedy herb, fls. in racemes; petals pink or lavender: 27202, 27669, 27911; Z 48; Delgado 34; Filskov 37054*; Holm-Nielsen 24453*. "Hierba de toro"

2. Cuphea strigulosa Kunth
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-1600 m; weedy herb, fls. axillary, petals pink: 27094; N 9778; Z 47; Filskov 37058*; Holm-Nielsen 24465A*, 24485*. "Hierba de toro"

MAGNOLIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Lozano-Contreras, G. 1983. Fl. Colombia 1: 1-119.

1. Talauma gilbertoi Lozano
     Prim. & trans. for., Cerro Sosa, 1600-2000 m; tree to 35 m; fls. yellowish-white, fragrant: 27337, 29359, 31672, 32946; C 39747, 39761; G 69912 (det. D. Neill). [Not listed in CVPE, and occurring at a higher elevation than any of the four species of Talauma recorded; apparently T. gilbertoi of the Western Cordillera of Colombia (Risaralda and Valle) in its lvs. pubescent beneath and with scar 1/2 to 2/3 the length of the petiole, and relatively small gynoecium with c. 10 carpels.]

MALPIGHIACEAE (2) (* det. C. Anderson)
     Ref.: Anderson, C. 1987. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 16: 1-48; Syst. Bot. Monogr. 51: 1-313.

1. Bunchosia argentea (Jacq.) DC.
     El Pahuma, 1960-2000 m; tree to 7 m, frs. yellow: Nicolalde 351; Rojas 404.

2. Stigmaphyllon bogotense Triana & Planch.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2175 m; vine with yellow fls.: 29106, 30202*, 31114*, 32390; Croat 72860*.

MALVACEAE (5) (* det. P. A. Fryxell)
     Ref.: Fryxell, P. A. 1992. Fl. Ecuador 44: 1-141.

     [Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp. is cult. at Hacienda El Carmen, 1250 m: 31176.]

1. Bastardiopsis myrianthus (Planch. & Linden) Fuertes & Fryxell
     Sec. for., 1200-1960 m; tree 5-20 m, petals yellow: 27629*, 29261, 31655; N 9790*; Nicolalde 320*.

     [Malvaviscus penduliflorus DC. is cult. at Hacienda El Carmen, 1250 m; shrub with red fls.: Z 122.]

2. Pavonia castaneifolia A. St.-Hil. in Naudin
     Sec. for., 1400-1800 m; common weed with white fls.: 27175; C 12406*.

3. Pavonia fruticosa (Miller) Fawc. & Rendle
     Overgrown thickets, 1350 m; weed with pink fls.: 31727; Z 33.

4. Pavonia pseudotyphalaea Planch. & Linden ex Triana & Planch.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub 0.7 m, white fls.: Delgado 71*.

5. Pavonia schiedeana Steud.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; petals pink on outside, white on inner side: Filskov 37076*.

6. Sida acuta Burm. f.
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; common weed with yellow fls.: 27421. "Escoba", "Escobilla"

7. Sida poeppigiana (K. Schum.) Fryxell
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; shrub 0.5 m, fls. yellow: Z 20; Cedeño 41*; Filskov 37055*; Holm-Nielsen 24470*.

8. Sida rhombifolia L.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-1250 m; weed with yellow-orange fls.: 27093. "Escoba"

9. Urena lobata L.
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; subshrub with pink fls.: 27438; Z 25. "Amonan", "Abrojo", "Cadillo"

10. Wercklea ferox (Hook. f.) Fryxell
     Sec. for., 1200-1650 m; spiny shrub 3-4 m, calyx red, corolla yellow: 27544, 29349, 31089; N 8644*, 9791. "Ortiguilla"

MARCGRAVIACEAE (4) (* det. S. Dressler)
     Ref.: de Roon, A. C. 1970. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 57: 29-50.

1. Marcgravia brownei (Triana & Planch.) Krug & Urb.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1550-1950 m; ep. vine, fls. green: 28718*, 29380*; F 1054*; G 73120 (det. D. Giraldo).

2. Marcgravia cf. helverseniana S. Dressler & Tschapka
     Prim. for., 2100-2200 m; ep. vine to 12 m, fls. green, frs. orange: 28901*, 29181*, 29184*.

3. Marcgravia sp. 1
     Sec. for., Cerro Campana, 1750 m; climbing vine, fls. greenish: 30033*.

4. Marcgraviastrum gigantophyllum (Gilg) Bedell ex S. Dressler
     Prim. for., 1550-2250 m; ep. vine, fls. green: 28942*, 30021*, 30249*, 32836*; G 73226 (det. D. Giraldo).

5. Marcgraviastrum sodiroi (Gilg) Bedell ex S. Dressler
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; vine: C 39746.

6. Sarcopera anomala (Kunth) Bedell (= Norantea anomala Kunth)
     Sec. for., 1200-1900 m; common liana, bracts red, fls. greenish: 27388*, 28970*, 29363 (cf.)*, 31764; C 39723; F 1273; C. Espinoza 48*.

7. Norantea guianensis Aubl.
     Prim. for., hemiephytic climber, 1550 m: G 73163 (?), 73177 (det. D. Giraldo).

     [Several additional collections of Marcgraviaceae remain unidentified.]

MELASTOMATACEAE (13) (* det. J. J. Wurdack; ** det. F. Almeda; *** det. E. Cotton)
     Refs.: Wurdack, J. J. 1980. Fl. Ecuador 13: 1-405; Freire-Fierro, A. 2002. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 62: 1-99 [Aciotis].

1. Aciotis rubricaulis (Martius ex DC.) Triana (incl. Aciotis alata (Beurl.) Almeda & Aciotis caulialata (Ruiz & Pav.) Triana)
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; herb 1 m, fls. white: 27187, 27877; Asplund 17278; Filskov 37074; Freire-Fierro 2767a, 2767b; Sodiro 478?; Sparre 14892 (all non-GLW collections det. A. Freire-Fierro).

2. Arthrostemma ciliatum Pav. ex D. Don
     Scrub, El Carmen to Marianitas, 1200-1250 m; scrambling, fls. pale pink: 27299, 31344.

     [Axinaea sodiroi Wurdack, collected near Gulea (Valencia et al., 2000: 231) may occur within our limits.]

3. Blakea eriocalyx Wurdack
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1950 m; shrub or tree to 15 m, corolla white or pink: 27009, 27248, 27880**, 28199, 28331, 28735*, 29257, 30032, 30406, 31076, 31956; C 12419*, 39738; G 69941*; Q 293*; V 12267*. [Type from Los Puentes near Nanegal: Asplund 17244.]

     [Blakea incompta Markgr. has been reported from Nanegalito by Valencia et al., 2000: 232)]

4. Blakea quadriflora Gleason
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1300-2750 m; shrub or tree to 15 m, sometimes vine-like, corolla pink: 28697*, 28709*, 28721*, 28907*, 29108, 29151, 30031, 31774; F 1285, 1382; T 137*; Z 136.

5. Blakea rotundifolia D. Don
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750-2275 m; tree 10-25 m: F 1222, 1473***; Nicolalde 387; Suin 437***; Vargas 4089 (det. D. Neill).

6. Blakea sp. 1
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1650 m; tree, bracts green, frs. pink: 31327.

7. Brachyotum ledifolium (Desr.) Triana
     El Pahuma, 1500-1800 m; shrub to 50 cm, frs. reddish: Rubio 2089*.

8. Conostegia superba D. Don ex Naudin
     Sec. rip. for., 1250-1400 m; common tree 5 m, corolla white: Z 101; Harling & Andersson 11588.

9. Graffenrieda cucullata (Triana) L. O. Williams.
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; arborescent shrub or tree 3-12 m, corolla white: 27036, 27982, 29050**, 32933; V 12266*; Sparre 14874.

10. Graffenrieda sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1450-1500 m; tree 4 m: 31895** [assignment provisional due to lack of fls.].

11. Leandra nervosa (Naudin) Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1750-1850 m; shrub 1.5-4 m: 31630.

12. Leandra subseriata (Naudin) Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1700 m; shrub 2-3 m, fls. white: 32775.

13. Meriania cf. acostae Wurdack
     Prim. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 12 m, fls. red: T 173*; Nanegal, Sodiro Add. 3.

14. Meriania aff. drakei (Cogn.) Wurdack
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750-2000 m; tree to 25 m: F 1207, 1225***.

15. Meriania maxima Markgr.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1325-1925 m; tree 7-25 m, corolla purple: 31038, 31666; F 1062***, 1514; Holm-Nielsen 24460*; Sparre 14878. "Flor de Mayo"

16. Meriania peltata Uribe
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; tree 10 m x 10 cm, corolla violet:, 30607* (det. confirmed S. Renner). [Not in CVPE.]

17. Meriania pichinchensis Wurdack
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; shrub 3 m, corolla red: Zak & Jaramillo 3233*.

18. Meriania tomentosa (Cogn.) Wurdack
     Prim. for., 1500-2650 m; shrub or tree to 20 m, corolla red or pink: 28221, 28705*, 31077, 31183, 31324, 31683; C 5906**; F 1049, 1101; G 73191***; N 9798**; Q 23*, 113*, 287**; P 3603**; Cedeño 43; Nicolalde 329, 332***, 344, 373; Rojas 396. [A specimen from Cerro Campana, 31077, appears similar but has yellow fls.] "Hualicón cari"

19. Miconia adrieni J. F. Macbr.
     El Pahuma, 2600 m; ep., calyx red, petals yellow: C. Espinoza 18.

20. Miconia aeruginosa Naudin
     Sec. for., 1200-1800 m; shrub 1-4 m, fls. with foetid odor, corolla white: 27061, 27245*, 27712, 32774; C 12404*; Z 237.

21. Miconia asclepiadea Triana
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2050 m; shrub or small tree 3-4 m, corolla white: 27139*, 27831**, 30478; F 1206; Mantuano 9; Nanegal, Jameson 363.

22. Miconia aspergillaris (Bonpl.) Naudin
     Prim. for., 2500 m; shrub 3 m, fls. white: V 12335*.

23. Miconia asperrima Triana
     Loma Pahuamba, 2150 m; tree 3 m: F 1288.

24. Miconia brevitheca Gleason
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 15 m: Q 20*, 91*, 108*, 283*.

25. Miconia crinita Naudin ssp. australis Wurdack
     Sec. for., 1800-2000 m; subshrub 1 m: C 7182*.

26. Miconia crocea (Desr.) Naudin
     El Pahuma, 1500-1800 m; shrub to 1.5 m, fls. white, frs. lead-colored: Rubio 2073*.

27. Miconia dapsiliflora Wurdack
     Prim. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 10 m, calyx yellow, corolla pink: Q 288*.

28. Miconia denticulata Naudin
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; shrub 1-2 m, fls. white: 30132**, 32414.

29. Miconia hymenanthera Triana
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1900-2750 m; shrub or tree 1-10 m, calyx red, corolla yellow, orange, or red: 28909*, 29133, 29436, 29482*, 30181, 30534, 31511, 31536, 31610*, 32855; F 1296***; Cedeño 8***; Mantuano 21***.

30. Miconia lasiocalyx Cogn.
     Prim. for., 1900-2375 m; tree 4-8 m, corolla white: 29456, 29464*, 30178, 30236**; Cedeño 15***.

31. Miconia rivetii Danguy & Cherm.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2050 m; tree 4-10 m, fls. pale pink, fr. red: 27725*, 29177, 29337, 31716; V 12301*; Holm-Nielsen 24432*, 24466*. "Colca"

32. Miconia sodiroi Wurdack
     Sec. for., Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree to 15 m: C 39719; Nanegal, Sodiro Add. 2 (type, cited by Wurdack, 1980).

33. Miconia theaezans (Bonpl.) Cogn.
     Upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; shrub or tree 4-14(-30) m, corolla white or pink: 29476*, 30252; F 1494***; H 29525; K 31970; Q 5*, 73* [these two Quelal collections, from 1500-1700 m, are as trees 30 m high, exceeding description of Wurdack]; Vargas 4049, 4067, 4069, 4071, 4080; Zak & Jaramillo 3210*. "Amarillo"

34. Miconia sp. 1
     Prim. for., 2200-2250 m; shrub 5 m, calyx pink, corolla white: 28941.

35. Miconia sp. 2.
     Rip. for., Río Tulambi, 1350-1400 m; shrub 4 m: 30293.

36. Monochaetum hartwegianum Naudin
     Prim. for., 2000-2050 m; scarcely woody, fls. pink: 30477. "Amaya"

37. Monochaetum lineatum (D. Don) Naudin
     Sec. for., 1700-2000 m; shrub to 1 m, fls. pink: Delgado 57; Holm-Nielsen 16145*, 24429*; Hurtado 1424.

38. Ossaea micrantha (Sw.) Macfad. ex Cogn.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1400-2100 m; shrub or tree 1.5-5 m, corolla white: 27184, 27252, 27876**, 28192, 29232, 29376, 30027**, 30200, 31658; F 1007, 1037; G 69926*, 73117***; N 9810**; P 3605*; Q 8*, 90*; Z 108; Rojas 398***.

39. Ossaea sparrei Wurdack
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; arborescent shrub 3-4 m, corolla white: 27182*, 27867, 31264.

40. Tibouchina lepidota (Bonpl.) Baill.
     Prim. & sec. for., often rip., 1250-2700 m; tree 3-8 m, corolla pink to purple: 27757, 27950, 28388, 30436, 30473, 30600, 31779, 31801, 32761; K 31801; Holm-Nielsen 24461*; Nicolalde 326. "Flor de Mayo"

41. Tibouchina longifolia (Vahl) Baill.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-1350 m; common weedy herb, corolla white: 27081, 27844; D 6115; Z 54; Filskov 37128*.

42. Tibouchina pendula Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1500-2250 m; clambering herb or shrub to 1 m, corolla white, frs. reddish: 27954*, 30471, 31957, 32119, 32825.

43. Topobea pittieri Cogn.
     Sec. for., 1550-1600 m; shrub or tree or hemiephytic climber 2-5 m, fls. white: 30013, 30429**; G 73126, 73223. (Gentry's specimens recorded as T. anisophylla Triana.)

MELIACEAE (3) (* det. W. Palacios)
     Ref.: Pennington, T. D., B. T. Styles, & D. A. H. Taylor. 1981. Fl. Neotrop. 28: 1-470.

1. Carapa megistocarpa A. Gentry & Dodson
     Sec. for., 1500-2025 m; tree 5 m: 30091, 33599 (both det. D. Neill). "Logma" .

2. Guarea cartaguenya Cuatrec.
     Rip. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 30 m: T 181*.

3. Guarea kunthiana A. Juss.
     Prim. for., 1500-2450 m; tree to 18 m: F 1345, 1467; G 69927; Q 82; T 175*. "Colorado"

4. Guarea sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1650 m; tree 4 m: 29362.

5. Ruagea glabra Triana & Planch.
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree: G 73231*.

6. Ruagea tomentosa Cuatrec.
     Prim. for., 1700-2200 m; tree 4-16 m: 30242, 30244; F 1196, 1472; Q 295; P 3590; T 135, 170; Nicolalde 360; Rubio 2419(?). [Treated as a synonym of Ruagea pubescens H. Karst. by Pennington, but appearing distinct in its pointed lvs. & pubescent ovary.] "Cedrillo"

MENISPERMACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Barneby, R. C. 1970. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 20(2): 81-158.; Rhodes, D. 1975. Phytologia 30: 415-484 (Cissampelos).

1. Cissampelos grandifolia Triana & Planch.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; vine with greenish fls. & green frs.: 28281; V 12300 (both det. C. Ott).

2. Cissampelos tropaeolifolia DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1350 m; common vine with greenish fls.: 27411, 28122, 30212, 31179; 1500-1600 m: J. L. Clark 7079.

3. Cissampelos sp. 1
     Prim. for., above Río Pichán, 2000-2050 m; vine with green fls.: 30212 [keys to C. grandifolia but more robust, with much denser indumentum].

4. Odontocarya tripetala Diels
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2000 m; vine with greenish fls.: 28765, 30347, 32008.

5. Odontocarya sp. 1
     Sec. for., Inca trail, 1350-1400 m; vine: 32370 [differs from O. tripetala in hirsute stems & lvs. pubescent beneath].

MONIMIACEAE (1) (* det. S. Renner)
     Refs.: Spichiger, R. et al. 1990. Boissiera 44: 1-565. Renner, S. S. & G. Hausner. 1997. Fl. Ecuador 59: 1-125.

1. Siparuna aspera (Ruiz & Pav.) A. DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; common weedy tree 5-13 m, fls. yellow or orange, frs. pinkish with rank odor: 27066, 27304*, 27655, 27731*, 28124*, 28896*, 29093*, 30007, 30362, 31947, 32440; C 5920*; F 1041, 1113, 1248, 1516*, 1557; Q 60*, 64*; T 152*; V 12239*; Nicolalde 324*. "Guayusa de monte"

2. Siparuna echinata (Kunth) A. DC.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1900-2750 m; shrub or tree to 5 m: 30255*, 30535; H 29538*; V 12340*, 12342*. "Guayusa", "Limoncillo"

3. Siparuna lepidota (Kunth) A. DC.
     Sec. & rip. for., 1200-2000 m; shrub or tree 3-10 m, fls. green or yellow, frs. yellowish: 28806*, 29268*; F 1253; V 12243*; Holm-Nielsen 24464*. "Guayusa de monte"

4. Siparuna piloso-lepidota Heilborn
     Upper mont. for., 1960-2500 m; tree to 10 m; fls. pale green: 29468*, 30584; F 1202*, 1431*, 1437; Harling & Andersson 11604*; Nicolalde 358*; Vargas 4086. "Limoncillo", "Palo hediondo"

MORACEAE (7) (* det. C. C. Berg; ** det. T. A. Kvitvik; *** det. W. Palacios)
     Refs.: Berg, C. C. 1972. Fl. Neotropica 7: 1-228; 1998. Fl. Ecuador 60: 1-128.

1. Brosimum sp.?
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; tree to 8 m: Z 129B, 236.

2. Clarisia biflora Ruiz & Pav.
     Rip. & sec. for., Hacienda El Carmen, 1250-1300 m; tree 15 m: Z 129. "Tillo serrano"

3. Clarisia cf. racemosa Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; tree 15 m: 31646. "Moral bobo"

4. Ficus americana Aubl. ssp. andicola (Standl.) C.C. Berg
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; common tree 5-20 m, figs from green with reddish spots to red: 27037*, 28959*; N 9786*.

5. Ficus brevibracteata W. C. Burger
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 6 m: F 1585.

     [Ficus carica L., Nanegalito, 1400 m; cult.: Filskov 37013. "Higo"]

6. Ficus cervantesiana Standl. & L. O. Williams
     Prim. for., 1500-1950 m; tree 12 m, figs pink: 31694; F 1119; G 69932*, 73128*, 73156*; Q 79**.

7. Ficus citrifolia Mill.
    Prim. for., 1550 m; hemiepiphytic tree: G 73244*.

8. Ficus cuatrecasasiana Dugand
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2100 m; tree 6-25 m: 30224*, 31018*, 32910; F 1036, 1038, 1070, 1102, 1501*, 1542*; Q 32**, 57**, 102**; V 12240*; W 12240*; Nicolalde 379*.

9. Ficus dulciaria Dugand
     Loma Pahuamba, 1550-2470 m; tree 15 m: F 1385*, 1488*; Vargas 4050.

10. Ficus gigantosyce Dugand
     El Pahuma, 1960-2300 m; tree 25-30 m: F 1399*; Nicolalde 359 (aff., det J. C. Valenzuela)

11. Ficus cf. hartwegii (Miq.) Miq.
     Sec. for., 1525-1700 m; tree or shrub 4-10 m: 30437*, 31325*.

12. Ficus macbridei Standl.
     Sec. for., 1450-1475 m; tree 15 m x 30 cm, lvs. with yellowish glands at base: 31049*; [Z 105 probably represents the same species].

13. Ficus mutisii Dugand
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 7-10 m, frs. yellowish: 27778*, 29379*; C 39766.

14. Ficus rieberiana C. C. Berg
     Sec. for., 1550 m: G 73216 (paratype).

15. Ficus subandina Dugand
     Rip. for., 1200 m; 5 m tree: 29077.

16. Morus insignis Bureau
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2275 m; tree to 15 m: 28337, 29053, 31217; C 12420; F 1046, 1240; G 73239; Q 24***, 290***; Z 115; Vargas 4047*; Zak & Jaramillo 3215 (det. R. Liesner). "Huasca"

17. Naucleopsis sp.
     Rip. for., banks, 2000 m; shrub with milky sap, clambering branches: 31831 [material barren & verification needed; if correctly placed in Naucleopsis, it appears distinct from the species treated by Berg (1972) in its long narrow lvs. with very long petioles].

18. Pseudolmedia gentryi C. C. Berg
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree with white latex: G 73232*.

19. Pseudolmedia sp. 1 ?
     Rip. for., 1500 m; tree 3 m: 30001.

20. Sorocea trophoides W. C. Burger ssp. rhodorachis (Cuatrec.) C. C. Berg
     Prim. for., 1550-1700 m; tree to 6 m: C 39757; G 69916*, 73121*."Tillo prieto"

     [Myricaceae have not been encountered in Maquipucuna, but Morella pubescens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Wilbur (= Myrica pubescens Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) has been collected in Reserva Geobotanica Pululahua, at 00° 05' N 78° 30' W: C 1845, as well as at 00° 01' S 78° 41' W, 2200 m: Clark 3451, and might possibly occur within our limits.]

MYRISTICACEAE (1) (* det. T. S. Jaramillo et al.)
     Ref.: Jaramillo, T. S., P. Muriel & H. Balslev. 2004. Fl. Ecuador. 72: 1-99.

1. Otoba gordoniifolia (A. DC.) A. H. Gentry
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1800 m; common tree to 40 m x 80 cm: 27014*, 27681*, 29109, 29119; C 12437*, 39752; G 69936*, 73175*, 73255*; N 8641*, 9807; Q 68*, 98*, 118*, 284*; V 13369*; Z 79, 79B, 196; Holm-Nielsen 24457*. "Caracha coco"

MYRSINACEAE (5) (* det. J. Pipoly)
     Refs.: Mez, C. 1902. Pflanzenreich 9 (236): 1-437. Lundell, C. L. 1971. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 58: 285-353. Pipoly, J. J. 1996. Sida 17: 445-458.

1. Ardisia colombiana Lundell
     Prim. for., 1500-1700 m; tree 12-25 m: Q 13, 69, 72, 76, 86.

2. Ardisia websteri Pipoly
     Rip. & sec. for., 1250-1700 m; treelet with unbranched trunk 1-3 m, fls. white or reddish, frs. reddish or purplish: 27468, 29316*, 30009*, 30307* (holotype BRIT), 30030, 30361*, 31011, 31180*, 31323, 32944; T 185*; Z 78, 125. [This species is, at present, known only from Maquipucuna; according to Pipoly (1996), it is so distinctive that it does not fit easily into any of the subgenera of Ardisia.]

3. Cybianthus goudotiana (Mez) G. Agostini
     Sec. for., 1350-1400 m; shrub or tree: 32366; Z 133. [Not in CVPE.]

4. Cybianthus simplex (Hook. f.) G. Agostini
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1950 m; shrub 1.5-2.5 m, fls. pale greenish, frs. reddish to purplish: 27594*, 27795*, 28702*, 28710*, 28769*, 28796*; C 39734.

5. Geissanthus cf. fallenae Lundell
     Prim. for., 1750-2275 m; tree 18 m: 30216; F 1052, 1218, 1233; Vargas 4048, 4082.

6. Geissanthus cf. longistamineus (A. C. Sm.) Pipoly
     Rip. for., 1400 m; tree 15 m, frs. green: 32376.

7. Geissanthus pichinchae Mez
     Prim. for., 1550 m; treelet: G 73176*. "Casca"

8. Geissanthus pichinchana (Lundell) Pipoly
     Prim. for., 1550-1900 m; tree to 4 m: F 1008; G 73124*.

9. Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2275 m; tree to 18 m, fls. green: F 1259; G 73189*; T 176*; Vargas 4073; Zak & Jaramillo 3244*.

10. Myrsine cf. latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
     Rip. for., 2000 m; tree 5 m, frs. green: 31844. [Differs from description of Mez in more distinctly acuminate lvs. not densely puncticulate beneath.].

11. Myrsine pellucida (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
     Sec. for., 175-2100 m; tree 15-20 m, fls. greenish: F 1278; P 3582*.

12. Stylogyne ambigua (C. Mart.) Mez
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1700-2720 m; tree to 30 m, fls. white, frs. dark purple or black: 28925, 30248, 32445; C 39754; F 1242, 1310; K 31987; P 3586*; Vargas 4065.

MYRTACEAE (6) (* det. B. Holst)
     Ref.: McVaugh, R. 1958. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 13(4): 567-818.

1. Calyptranthes sp. 1 (ined.)
     Prim. for., 2050-2150 m; tree to 10 m: 28884*, 29164*.

2. Calyptranthes sp. 2
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; tree 7 m: 30237.

3. Calyptranthes sp. 3
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; tree 12 m: 30238, 31584.

4. Eugenia aff. calva McVaugh
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; tree 5 m: 28333*, 29112*; T 592*.

5. Eugenia aff. florida DC.
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree 8 m: C 39773.

6. Eugenia cf. myrobalana DC.
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; shrub or tree to 5 m, frs. yellow: 30594; K 31965; El Pahuma, 1960 m; tree 6-7 m: Nicolalde 356. [Not in CVPE.]

7. Eugenia sp. 1 (ined.)
     Prim. for., 2275 m; tree 5 m: 29444*.

8. Eugenia sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1450 m; tree 30 m: 31112.

9. Myrcia cf. calumbaensis Kiaersk.
     Prim./sec. for. trans., 1650 m; tree 25 m: 29377. [Not in CVPE.]

10. Myrcia aff. fallax (Rich.) DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1225-1550 m; tree to 5 m: 29358?, 31040, 31161; G 73170*; Z 132. [Leaves are larger than described by McVaugh for Peruvian material.]

11. Myrcia sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1850-1925 m; tree 15 m: 28694*.

12. Myrcia sp. 2
     Prim. for., 1750-2200 m; tree 17 m: 28754*, 29552*.

13. Myrcianthes discolor (Kunth) McVaugh
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2700 m; tree 15 m: 30595; El Pahuma, 1960 m: Nicolalde 354. "Arrayán" [Various species of Myrcianthes are given this name.]

14. Myrcianthes orthostemon (O. Berg) Grifo
     Sec. for., 2075 m; tree 5 m: 31208*.

15. Myrcianthes rhopaloides (Kunth) McVaugh
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750-2275 m; tree 30 m: F 1047, 1263; Nicolalde 381; Vargas 4077.

16. Myrcianthes sp.1
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree: G 73143.

17. Psidium guajava L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; tree with yellow frs.: 27916; C 6864*; Z 5, 20. [Widely planted; although an American species, probably introduced in our area.] "Guayaba"

18. Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; tree 20 m; fls. pale green: V 12242* [perhaps not naturalized].

NYCTAGINACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Bohlin, J.-E. 1988. Nordic J. Bot. 8: 231-252.

1. Colignonia rufopilosa Kuntze
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; scrambling weak shrub to 3 m, bracts white: H 29534; K 31974.

OCHNACEAE (1)

1. Sauvagesia erecta L.
     Mossy banks in sec. for., 1200-1400 m; herb with white fls.: 27080, 27638; Z 160; Filskov 37066.

OLACACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Sleumer, H. 1984. Fl. Neotrop. 38: 1-159. Jørgensen, P. & C. Ulloa. 2002. Fl. Ecuador 69: 61-103.

1. Heisteria asplundii Sleumer
     Sec. for., 1200 m; treelet 6 m, fls. green: V 12275 (det. Jørgensen & Ulloa).

2. Heisteria cf. latifolia Standl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; shrub 3 m, fls. yellowish-green: 31163 (perhaps conspecific with the preceding species).

ONAGRACEAE (3) (* det. P. Berry)
     Ref.: Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. Ecuador 3: 1-46.

1. Fuchsia macrostigma Benth.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2750 m; common shrub to 2 m, fls. pink to red: 27260, 27807, 27961*, 28219, 28220, 28263, 28706, 29169, 30141, 30605*, 31067, 31611, 32377; G 73254*; K 31989; P 3580*; Cedeño 7. "Zarcillo"

2. Fuchsia polyantha Killip ex Munz
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2500-2800 m; shrub 2-3 m, fls. deep red: L 13653*; Øllgaard 98995 (det. S. León).

3. Fuchsia scabriuscula Benth.
     Prim. for., Loma Pahuamba-Tandayapa, 2000-2200 m; shrub 1 m, fls. red & white: 28662*; F 1287; Cedeño 26.

4. Fuchsia sessilifolia Benth.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1950-2750 m; shrub 1-3 m, infls. pendulous, fls. red: 28381, 30087*, 31540, 31581, 32409; L 13646*; Croat 72878*.

5. Fuchsia sylvatica Benth.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2500-2750 m; shrub c. 1 m, fls. red: 30580*; H 29528*.

6. Ludwigia affinis (DC.) H. Hara
     Wet disturbed areas and swamps, 1150-1300 m; fls. yellow: 31276, 33607.

7. Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. H. Raven
     Sec. for. & scrub, Marianitas to Nanegal, 1200-1250 m; in wet area: 28308, 31277. "Clavito"

8. Oenothera pubescens Willd. ex Spreng.
     Clearings in upper mont. scrub, 2700 m; herb with reddish-yellow fls.: 31809; K 32002. "Platanillo"

OXALIDACEAE (1)
     Refs.: Lourteig, A. 1980. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 67: 823-850; 1988. Fl. Patagonica 8(5): 1-29.

1. Oxalis corniculata L.
     Sec. for., clearings, 2050 m; prostrate herb, fls. yellow: 31203 [possibly not native]. "Chulco"

2. Oxalis cf. frutescens L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1350 m; herb 0.5 m, fls. yellow: 28937, 31041.

3. Oxalis hedysaroides Kunth
     Near road from Nanegalito to Pacto, km 8, 00° 04' N 78° 41' W, 1600 m; shrub 0.7 m, lower sides of stems and lvs.dark red: Holm-Nielsen 24473 (det A. Lourteig).

4. Oxalis jamesonii Lourteig
     Prim. for.?, 1800 m; fls. yellow: C 12409.

5. Oxalis cf. latifolia Kunth
     Sec. for., 1250-1450 m; bulbose herb, fls. pink or pale purple: 27402, 29049, 31023; K 31802; Z 176. "Chirisque"

6. Oxalis lotoides Kunth
     Sec. for., 1900-2400 m; clambering herbaceous vine, fls. yellow: 31220, 31626, 32805; Delgado 22. "Cañitas"

7. Oxalis psoraleoides Kunth
     Rip. & sec. for., 1250-1400 m; herb 0.5 m, fls. yellow: 27258, 27598, 27671, 28733, 29089. "Tantanil blanco"

PAPAVERACEAE (1)

1. Bocconia integrifolia L.
     Sec. for., 1200-2450 m; shrub to 4 m: 27294, 28851; F 1322; N 9777; Z 180. "Chandor", "Mandor", "Sandalla"

PASSIFLORACEAE (1) (* det. P. M. Jørgensen; ** det. J. MacDougal)
     Ref.: Holm-Nielsen, L. B., P. M. Jørgensen, & J. E. Lawesson. 1988. Fl. Ecuador 31: 1-129.

1. Passiflora adenopoda DC.
     Sec. for., 2200 m; vine, fls. white with red stamens: MacDougal 4989; Rubio 2418**.

2. Passiflora alnifolia Kunth
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; vine, fls. purple & cream: Zak & Jaramillo 3232**.

3. Passiflora chelidonea Mast.
     Upper mont. for., 2200-2725 m; twining vine, fls. white with purplish-brown markings: H 29521*. "Taxillo"

4. Passiflora coactilis (Mast.) Killip
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; twining herb, fls. red and purple: L 13671*.

5. Passiflora foetida L.
     Roadside scrub, 1200-1250 m; vine, lvs. foetid, petals white, corona purple: 31721. "Bedoca", "Bombillo"

6. Passiflora macrophylla Mast.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; shrub 2.5 m, sparsely branched, fls. white: 31004.

7. Passiflora manicata (Juss.) Pers.
     Sec. for., 2050 m; vine, frs. green: 31201*. "Taxo"

8. Passiflora menispermifolia Kunth
     Sec. for., banks, 1280-1350 m; vine: 28184; Kapan 7**.

9. Passiflora mixta L. f. var. eriantha (Benth.) Killip
     Roadside scrub, 2000 m; vine with pinkish fls.: 31807. "Taxo silvestre"

10. Passiflora resticulata Mast. & André
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; vine: 27240*, 27547*, 27879*, 28305, 31577; C 5944**.

11. Passiflora riparia Mart. ex Mast.
     Sec. for., 1400 m; liana, frs. mottled, cut surface with cucurbitacin odor: 31316*.

12. Passiflora rubra L.
     Sec. for., 1150-1325 m; vine, frs. red: 31019*, 31271.

13. Passiflora sp. nov. ?
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro & Cerro Sosa, 1500-2000 m; nearly leafless vine, calyx green, corolla white: 27958, 32975.

PHYTOLACCACEAE (1)

1. Phytolacca bogotensis Kunth
     Clearings in sec. for., 1950-2000 m; herb to 0.6 m, fls. red, frs. black: 32443; Mantuano 15.

2. Phytolacca rivinoides Kunth & C. D. Bouché
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; weed c. 1 (2) m, fls. white or pink, berries bluish: 27471, 27515, 28270, 30121, 31101; Hurtado 1430. "Atusara", "Jaboncillo"

PIPERACEAE (2) (* det. A. J. Bornstein; ** det. R. Callejas)
     Refs.: Candolle, C., Bull. Herb. Boiss. 1: 477-495, 505-521. 1898; Sodiro, Piperaceas ecuatorianas. 1900; Tebbs, M. C. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 19: 117-158. 1989. Trelease, W. & T. G. Yuncker. Piperaceae of Northern South America. 2 vols. 1950.

1. Peperomia acuminata Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; robust herb to 1 m, spikes green: 28903*, 29136, 29427, 29466, 29545, 31516; C. Espinoza 11, 38, 39 (ep.).

2. Peperomia albertsmithii Trel. & Yunck. var. villosa Trel. & Yunck.
     Sec. for., 1650-1675 m; terr., spikes green: 31770**.

3. Peperomia angularis C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; terr. or ep.: 28028**, 28786**, 29221**, 29277**, 31705; Cedeño 6.

4. Peperomia bicolor Sodiro (vel aff.)
     Prim. for., 1900-1925 m: 29194**. [Type from Gualea: Sodiro 2/33X.]

5. Peperomia caespitosa C. DC.
     Sec. for., 2100 m; ep.: 30083**.

6. Peperomia calimana Trel. & Yunck.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; ep., spikes green: 27980**.

7. Peperomia crispa Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; terr., stems erect or trailing, spikes green: 28265**, 29190**, 31598, 31767, 31892**, 32412, 32971; Delgado 8*.

     [Peperomia discifolia Sodiro, from "Mt. Pichincha hasta Gualea": Sodiro s.n., may possibly have been collected within our area.]

8. Peperomia distachya (L.) A. Dietr.
     Rip. for., 1250-1300 m; ep.: 30512**; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Mantuano 16.

     [Peperomia distichophylla Sodiro, based on Sodiro 2/5 from Gualea, treated as a synonym of Peperomia lancifolia Hook. by Trelease & Yuncker, may occur in our area.]

9. Peperomia eburnea Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1250-1900 m; very common, terr. or more often ep., mostly creeping or climbing, lvs. often red-spotted beneath: 27008**, 27339**, 27704**, 27840**, 27863**, 28072**, 28262**, 28336**, 29252**, 29297**, 29318**, 30008**, 30289, 30326**, 31736, 31926**, 33603; C. Espinoza 51; Nanegal: Mille, 4/1902; Sodiro s.n., s.d.(type), Sodiro s.n., 7/1902.

10. Peperomia ecuadorensis C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1150-1400 m; terr., lvs. (at least veins & petioles) reddish beneath: 27179, 27289, 27467, 27686, 27706, 27775**, 28736**, 28818**, 29984; Nanegal-Gualea, Sodiro 4.

11. Peperomia elongata Kunth
     Nanegal; ep.: Sodiro s.n., 3/1901 (type of Peperomia cuspidigera Sodiro).

12. Peperomia emarginella (Sw. ex Wikstr.) C. DC.
     Prim. for., 2050-2100 m; ep.: 29224**.

13. Peperomia emarginulata C. DC.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 66.

14. Peperomia flavescens C. DC.
     Nanegal Valley; ep.: Sodiro. [Not in CVPE.]

15. Peperomia galioides Kunth
     Sec. for., 1300-2100 m; ep., foliage very aromatic: 29291**, 31533. "Congona silvestre"

16. Peperomia gaultheriifolia Sodiro
     Nanegal Valley; terr.: Sodiro, 7/1902.

17. Peperomia glabella (Sw.) A. Dietr.
     El Pahuma, 1900 m; ep.: C. Espinoza 54.

18. Peperomia haematolepis Trel.
     Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 10/1901 (type of Peperomia cinerea Sodiro), Sodiro s.n., 4/1906.

19. Peperomia hartwegiana Miq.
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro s.n., 10/1901

20. Peperomia helminthostachya Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1750 m; terr.: 27008a**, 27318*, 27774**. [Cited in CVPE as known only from the type.]

21. Peperomia hirtipeduncula C. DC.
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro 5.

22. Peperomia longipetiolata Trel. & Yunck.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; terr., creeping: 28750**, 29333**, 31769; Z 97.

23. Peperomia martiana Miq.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; ep., spikes greenish: 29322**, 31733.

     [Peperomia melanosticta Sodiro, collected between Nono & Gualea: Sodiro 2/94, may occur in our area.]

24. Peperomia metapalcoensis C. DC.
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro s.n. [Not in CVPE.]

25. Peperomia obtusifolia (L.) A. Dietr.
     Sec. for., 1150-1400 m; terr., spikes greenish: 28292, 28823*, 30334**.

26. Peperomia pachystachya C. DC.
     Subtrop. for., Nanegal-Gualea: Sodiro 2/15X (type of Peperomia phyllostachya Sodiro).

27. Peperomia peltoidea Kunth
     Rip. for., 1350-1400 m; ep., stems green: 30310**.

28. Peperomia pilicaulis C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; ep., climbing: 29281**.

     [Peperomia pseudovariegata C. DC. var. sarcophylla (Sodiro) Trel. & Yunck., based on Sodiro 11/900 from Gualea, may occur in our area.]

29. Peperomia pteroneura C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; terr., stems prostrate, spikes green: 27760**.

     [Peperomia pubirhachis Yunck., between Nono & Nanegal, 2100 m: Asplund 17269**.]

30. Peperomia quadrifolia (L.) Kunth
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; ep.: 27116, 27480, 27701, 27881**, 27906, 29278*, 29999; Filskov 37095 (det. G. Mathieu).

31. Peperomia rotundata Kunth var. rotundata
     Upper mont. for., 2650 m; ep.: K 31996.

31A. Peperomia rotundata Kunth var. trinervula (C. DC.) Steyermark
     Prim. for., 2100 m; ep.: P 3596**.

32. Peperomia rupicola C. DC.
     Banks in rip. for., 2000 m; terr., stems reddish, spikes green: 31835**.

     [Peperomia sarmentosa Sodiro, collected between Mt. Pichincha & Gualea: Sodiro 4/900, may occur in our area.]

33. Peperomia scutellariifolia Sodiro
     Subtrop. for., Nanegal; prostrate repent herb: Sodiro 2/66X.

34. Peperomia stelechophila C. DC.
     Nanegal Valley; repent herb or small scandent shrub: Sodiro s.n. (as P. gualeana).

35. Peperomia subalata C. DC.
     Nanegal; assurgent herb: Sodiro s.n., 2/1902 (type of P. camposii Sodiro).

36. Peperomia subdiscoidea Sodiro
     "Subtropical forest", Nanegal Valley; repent herb: Sodiro s.n., 1/1900.

37. Peperomia swartziana Miq.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2025 m; common ep., sometimes climbing: 27316, 27340, 27694, 27705, 27835, 28013**, 28060, 28208**, 29219, 30267, 30511; V 12328**; Filskov 37103**; Suin 337**.

38. Peperomia ternata C. DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2250 m; terr. or ep., spikes clustered on a peduncle: 29433**, 31557, 32413; Nanegal: Sodiro 7/1900.

39. Peperomia tetraphylla (G. Forst.) Hook. & Arn.
     Roadcut in sec. for., 2000 m: K 32012**.

     [Peperomia thienii Yuncker may be expected within our area; the type locality, Guayumo (= Cerro Guarumos?) is 2' south of the Equator.]

40. Peperomia tovariana C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1650 m; ep.: 31866.

41. Peperomia trianae C. DC.
     Near road from Nanegalito to Pacto, km 8, 00° 04' N 78° 41' W, 1600 m; ep.: Holm-Nielsen 24481 (det. G. Mathieu).

42. Peperomia trinervis Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1400-1800 m; ep.: 32403; Sodiro s.n, 1902.

43. Peperomia tropeolifolia Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 2000-2300 m; scandent: 28002, 28247**, 28912**, 29159**, 32830; Nanegal Valley, Sodiro 9/907. "Guiadora"

     [A number of additional collections of Peperomia remain unidentified to species.]

44. Piper aduncum L.
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m: N 9776**; T 208**, 209**; Cedeño 37 (ep.). "Cordoncillo"

45. Piper aequale Vahl
     Sec. for., 1300-2030 m; shrub or tree 2-5 m, foliage very aromatic, spikes erect, whitish or yellowish: 29123**, 31193, 31634, 32415, 32798; K 31909. "Mucuchalla"

46. Piper appendiculatum (Benth.) C. DC.
     "Bosques de Nanegal, Hartweg" (Synonymized with Piper fraseri C. DC. by Sodiro).

     [Piper barbatum Kunth, collected between Calacalí & Yunguillas: Zak & Jaramillo 1809, 1828, probably will be found within our area.]

47. Piper bullosum C. DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2100 m; shrub to 5 m, sometimes clambering or ep.: 27043, 27405, 27978**, 28064**, 28205, 28711*, 29097**, 31237, 31738**, 32372; C 5922**; G 69943**, 73221**; P 3595**; T 161**; Z 102.

48. Piper carpunya Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1500-2200 m; tree or arborescent shrub to 5 m, foliage strongly aromatic, spikes erect, greenish or yellowish: 31909**; Zak & Jaramillo 3209**, 3247** (the last two det. as Piper lenticellosum C. DC.).

49. Piper crassinervium Kunth
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; shrub 2-4 m, spikes erect: 27180*, 27991*.

50. Piper cuspidilimbum C. DC.
     Prim. for., 1630 m: G 69949**.

51. Piper ecuadorense Sodiro
     Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 1905.

52. Piper eriocladum Sodiro
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 382). [Type from Verde-cocha, 2500 m: Sodiro s.n.]

53. Piper falanense Trel. & Yunck.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; tree 5 m: 29056**. [Not in CVPE.]

54. Piper filistilum C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1350-1400 m; shrub 0.5 m: 30315*.

55. Piper friedrichsthalii C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1350-1550 m; tree 4 m: 29260**; Z 3, 6. [Treated by Bornstein as a synonym of P. lanceifolium.]

56. Piper fuliginosum Sodiro
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree 4 m: C 39743.

57. Piper grande Vahl
     Sec. for., 1950-2000 m; slender tree 6 m: C 5916**; F 1065.

     [Piper gualeanum C. DC., based on Sodiro 34 from Gualea, may occur within our area.]

58. Piper guayasanum C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1300-1680 m; shrub or tree 2.5-5 m, spikes pendent: 27987**, 31338. [Cited in CVPE as known only from the type.]

59. Piper hispidum Sw.
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; shrub or tree to 8 m, spikes erect: 27041, 29060, 29328**, 32748; T 210**. "Cordoncillo"

60. Piper hylebates C. DC.
     Sec. & rip. for., 2000 m; shrub 1.5-2 m, spikes greenish or whitish: 30150*, 31865*.

61. Piper imperiale (Miq.) C. DC.
     Nanegal, 1000-1600 m; shrub: Sodiro 1/44.

62. Piper lanceifolium Kunth
     Sec. for., 1250-2200 m; arborescent shrub 2-5 m, foliage aromatic, spikes curving at tip: 27038, 30222*, 31232, 31633*; Delgado 56**; Zak & Jaramillo 3246**. "Cordoncillo"

63. Piper lineolatifolium Trel. & Yunck.
     Rip. for., 1350-1400 m; shrub 2 m, spikes erect: 30273*.

64. Piper manabinum C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; shrub: 28288**. "Guabiduca"

65. Piper marequitense C. DC.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1300-1800 m; shrub 3-4 m, spikes erect, yellow: 28283**, 30393*; Z 10; Luteyn 6534**. "Luto negro"

66. Piper nanegalense Trel. & Yunck.
     Nanegal, 1600 m: Mille s.n., 1908 (holotype ILL). [Perhaps not separable from P. obliquum Ruiz & Pav., fide M. C. Tebb.]

67. Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pav. (incl. P. pseudonobile C. DC.)
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; shrub or tree 2.5-7 m, spikes pendulous, to 1.5 m: 27514, 29366, 30375*, 31890*; F 1024, 1074, 1198; Sodiro 9/899.

68. Piper ottoniifolium C. DC.
     Sec. for. along Río Umachaca, 1200 m; ep. shrub, spikes erect, yellowish-green: 27630*.

69. Piper pallidirameum C. DC.
     Prim. for., 1800 m; tree 6 m, foliage very aromatic: C 12429. [Not in CVPE.]

70. Piper peltatum L. (= Pothomorphe peltata (L.) Miq.)
     Sec. for., 1500 m; herb 1.5 m: 27545. "Corazón", "Santa Maria", "Taco-taco"

71. Piper phytolaccifolium Opiz
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; shrub 1-2 m, spikes erect: 27045, 28116**, 28137**, 28275 (det. N. Greig); V 12238**; Z 8, 19; Filskov 37109**.

72. Piper piluliferum Kunth
     Sec. for., 1225-1600 m; shrub 1-2 m, spikes capitate: 27396**, 27483**, 27986*, 28687**, 29324**, 30312, 31154; T 211**.

73. Piper cf. scobinifolium Yunck.
     Rip. for., 2000 m; shrub 1 m, spikes erect: 32438. [Not in CVPE.]

74. Piper sodiroi C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1600-2200 m; shrub or tree 4-5 m; spikes erect, green: 32782; Zak & Jaramillo 3254**.

75. Piper squamulosum C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1250-1900 m; shrub or tree to 7 m, foliage aromatic, spikes pendulous: 27042*, 29114; Z 29, 192; Nanegal, Sodiro 1/46 (type). "Anis"

76. Piper subflavispicum C. DC.
     Nanegalito to Armenia & Loma San José, 1900-2200 m; shrub 2 m, infls. yellow-green: Zak & Jaramillo 3250**; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 25 (cf.).

77. Piper subglabribracteatum C. DC.
     Nanegal, 1000-1600 m: Sodiro 1/26.

78. Piper tenuilimbum C. DC.
     Sec. for., 1400-1500 m; shrub: 27983**.

79. Piper tristemon C. DC.
     Prim. for., 1550 m; treelet, infls. greenish: G 73211**. [Not in CVPE.]

80. Piper aff. tumidinodum Yunck.
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1500 m; shrub: 28321**. [Not in CVPE.]

81. Piper (Pothomorphe) umbellatum L.
     Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 7/1906. "Maria panga"

82. Piper sp. 1 (aff. bullosum C DC. ?)
     Sec. for., 1350 m; undershrub 0.5 m: 29991.

     [A number of additional collections of Piper remain unidentified to species.]

PLANTAGINACEAE (1)

1. Plantago australis Lam. ssp. hirtella (Kunth) Rahn
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; 0.15 m herb: Delgado 41 (det. R. Liesner).

2. Plantago major L.
     Sec. for., weed in clearings & fields, 1400-2700 m: 27429, 28019; K 31980; Filskov 37017; Mantuano 6 (det. R. Liesner). "Llantén"

POLYGALACEAE (3) (* det. B. Eriksen)
     Refs.: Ferreyra, R. 1953. Lloydia 16: 193-226. Eriksen, B., B. Stahl & C. Persson. 2000. Fl. Ecuador: 65:1-134.

1. Monnina hirta (Bonpl.) B. Eriksen ssp. cuspidata (Benth.) B. Eriksen
     Sec. for. & thickets, 1200-1800 m; shrub 2-3 m, fls. purplish: 27246*, 27537*, 27557*, 28056*, 28746*, 28766*, 28767*, 29032; Z 168, 231; Harling & Andersson 11573*. "Azulina"

2. Monnina glaberrima Chodat
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; shrub 4 m, fls. purplish: 30609*. [Not in CVPE.]

3. Monnina pseudopilosa Ferreyra
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1200-2750 m; shrub 1.5-4 m, fls. purplish: 28081*, 28285*, 30599*, 31524, 32809. "Iguilán"

4. Monnina sodiroana Chodat
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1600-2500 m; clambering shrub c. 2 m, fls. purplish: 27275, 27329*, 27679*, 28240*, 28714*, 28760, 28890*, 29188*, 31321, 31664, 31682.

5. Polygala paniculata L.
     Sec. for. & clearings, 1250-1700 m; common weed with pinkish fls.: 27644, 32778; Holm-Nielsen 24421*. "Canchalagua"

6. Securidaca coriacea Bonpl. ?
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; scandent shrub c. 0.5 m: 32353; "valle Nanegal", Sodiro 59. "Bejuco de jabón"

POLYGONACEAE (2) (* det. J. Brandbyge)
     Ref.: Brandbyge, J. 1989. Fl. Ecuador 38: 1-61.

1. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.
     Along road, 10 km north of Nanegalito, 0° 7' N 78° 39' W, 1400 m; weedy herb: Laegaard 53101*. "Yaco"

2. Rumex obtusifolius L.
     Sec. for., scrub & fields, 1400-2000 m; weedy herb: 31615, 32784; Cedeño 37; Filskov 37015*. "Lengua de vaca"

     [Primulaceae, Anagallis minima (L.) E. H. L. Krause, between Nono and Nanegalito, 2300 m: Øllgaard 98937, is 2' south of our boundary.]

PROTEACEAE (2)
     Refs.: Sleumer, H. 1954. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 76: 139-211. Bonifaz, C. & X. Cornejo 2002. Fl. of Ecuador 69: 3-48

1. Panopsis antioquensis L. E. Gut.
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree: G 73140 (det. K. Edwards). [Not in CVPE.]

2. Panopsis sp. 1
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-1700 m; tree 10-20 m: 29367; Q 26; Edwards 565. [Bonifaz & Cornejo list the last two (sterile) specimens as resembling P. antioquensis.]

3. Roupala monosperma (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M. Johnst. (incl. Roupala obovata Kunth)
     Prim. for., 1500-1750 m; tree 5-30 m: 31697; Edwards 564, 566, 567, 573; El Pahuma, 1550-1750 m; tree 15-25 m: F 1270 (det. Cornejo); N 9809. "Roble blanco" "Roble andino"

RANUNCULACEAE (3)

1. Clematis haenkeana C. Presl
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2100 m; climbing vine, fls. yellowish-white: 27744, 28185, 30491; Z 17. "Barba de viejo"

2. Ranunculus limoselloides Turcz.
     Prostrate aquatic herb, sandy banks of stream south of Tandayapa, 1700 m: 32747.

3. Thalictrum podocarpum Kunth ex DC.
     Rip. for. & banks, 1800-2000 m; fls. greenish: 31837, 32754; P 3622.

ROSACEAE (3) (* det. K. Romoleroux)
     Refs.: Romoleroux, Katya. 1994. The family Rosaceae in Ecuador. Dissert., Aarhus. 1996. Fl. Ecuador 56:1-169.

1. Lachemilla aphanoides (Mutis ex L. f.) Rothm.
     Clearing in upper mont. for., 2725 m: H 29519*; edge of prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m: L 13664*.

2. Lachemilla pectinata (Kunth) Rothm.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2725-2800 m: 30540, 31521; H 29520*.

3. Prunus huantensis Pilg.
     Prim. for., 1630 m; tree: G 69940.

4. Rubus boliviensis Focke
     Sec. for., upper mont. for., 1400-1700, 2700-2750 m; vine with white fls.: 27716*, 29493*, 30536*; C 39731. "Mora" [Name applied to most species of Rubus.]

5. Rubus glabratus Kunth
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2800 m; vine with white fls.: 30537*, 31530.

6. Rubus glaucus Benth.
     Upper mont. for., 2650-2700 m; vine to 1.2 m, lvs. white beneath, fls. white: K 31998.

7. Rubus niveus Thunb.
     Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m: Filskov 37036*. "Morita"

8. Rubus nubigenus Kunth
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2700-2750 m; clambering shrub or vine to 3 m, fls. pink or white: 30548; H 29531*; K 31972. "Huagramora"

9. Rubus robustus C. Presl
     Loma Pahuamba, 2300 m; spiny shrub, petals pink: F 1428. "Mora silvestre"

10. Rubus urticifolius Poir.
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; vine with white fls.: 27015*, 28319*; Z 167.

11. Rubus sp. 1 (ined.)
     Sec. for., occ. in prim. for., 1250-1725 m; liana with pink fls.: 27403*, 28351*, 28693*, 29038*, 29284.

RUBIACEAE (23) (revised by P. Delprete; * det. P. Delprete; ** det. C. M. Taylor)
     Refs.: Standley, P. C. 1931. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 7(2): 177-251; Standley, P. C. 1936. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. 13(6): 1-263; Andersson, L. & L. T. Dempster. 1993. Fl. Ecuador 47: 1-38; Andersson, L. & C. M. Taylor. 1994. Fl. Ecuador 50: 1-112; Delprete, P. G., L. Andersson, B. Ståhl, & C. M. Taylor. 1999. Fl. Ecuador 62:1-320.

1. Agouticarpa grandistipula C. Persson
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; tree or shrub 4-6 m: 27993, 31790; C 5910; D 6090; G 73194, 73196. (All specimens, except 31790, are determined by C. Persson and are paratypes.) [Not in CVPE.]

2. Arachnothryx chimboracensis (Standl.) Steyrm.
     Sec. for., 1200-1675 m; shrub to treelet 3-6 m, fls. white to pinkish: 28320*, 28898*, 31015*, 31050*, 31170*, 31772; Q 107*; V 12251 (det. D. Lorence).

3. Arachnothryx reflexa (Benth.) Planch.
     Sec. for., 1150-1750 m; shrub or tree to 6 m, fls. pink: 27071*, 28841*, 30025* , 31663. (Some these have been determined as A. chimboracensis.)

4. Borojoa stipularis (Ducke) Cuatrec. ?
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; tree or shrub 3-12 m: 29987, 30239, 31674, 32956. [It is not certain that the flowers found on the trail, 32954, belong with the other collections.]

5. Borreria assurgens (Ruiz & Pav.) Griseb.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; weed with white fls.: 27702**, 28149, 32381, 32790; D 6119, 6123; Z 42. [Several recent treatments place this taxon in synonymy under Borreria remota (Lam.) Bacigalupo & E. L. Cabral.]

6. Borreria exilis L. O. Williams
     Sec. for., 1300-1800 m; herb with white fls.: 27368**; C 13021; D 6096; Z 162. "Piojo"

7. Borreria remota (Lam.) Bacigalupo & E. L. Cabral
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; 0.3 m herb, fls. white: Delgado 33**.

8. Chiococca alba (L.) A. Hitchc.
     Sec. for., 1900-2000 m; vine: 30614.

9. Cinchona pubescens Vahl
     Sec. for., 1900-2300 m; tree 15 m: 30613*; F 1454.

     [Coffea arabica L., edge of clearings, 1200-1250 m; cult.: 27539, does not appear to be naturalized.]

10. Condaminea corymbosa (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.
     Sec. for., 1150-1550 m; arborescent shrub 3-5 m, fls. yellowish-white to purplish with greenish corolla lobes: 28816, 31563, 31955*.

11. Elaeagia karstenii Standl.
     Prim. for., 1550-1700 m; tree 8 m: C 39721 (det. as E. utilis (Godot) Wedd.); G 73171**.

12. Faramea calyptrata C. M. Taylor
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; shrub 3 m: C 5914**; Zak & Jaramillo 3224** (both collections paratypes).

13. Faramea oblongifolia Standl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; shrub or tree 3-5 m, fls. yellowish-white, frs. purplish: 27486**, 28785**, 28893*, 30019*; D 6085**; G 73116**; N 9805**; Q 1**.

14. Faramea cf. quinqueflora Poepp.
     Prim. for., 1750-2215 m; tree 7-12 m, fls. blue or blackish: 28949*, 29130*, 29182*, 29983, 30157, 30261, 30617*; F 1575.

15. Faramea sp. 1 (spp.?)
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 6-7 m: 30416, 31051; D 6070.

16. Faramea sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; shrub 3.5 m, corolla yellow-white: 27136*, 27743*, 27839*, 28077*. "Jazmin"

17. Galium hypocarpium (L.) Endl. ex Griseb. (= Relbunium hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl.)
     Prim., sec., & upper mont. for., 1200-2750 m; clambering or creeping herb, corolla greenish, frs. orange: 27092, 27905, 28141, 29537, 30394, 30544; D 6120; K 1963; Z 55; Filskov 37084 (det. L. T. Dempster). "Coralitos"

18. Gonzalagunia cornifolia (Kunth) Standl.
     Sec. for., 1400-1850 m; shrub 1-3 m, fls. & frs. white: 30366*; D 6093.

19. Gonzalagunia dependens Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2500 m; common shrub 1.5-3 m, fls. white: 27126, 30720, 31094, 31222*; D 6083; L 14042 (det. B. Staahl), 13642 (det. C. Ulloa, confirmed B. Staahl); Croat 72861; Dodson & Thien 1114; Molau & Eriksen 2189**; Sparre 19328.

20. Gonzalagunia discolor Standl.
     Upper mont. for., banks, 2400 m; undershrub 0.3 m, fls. white: 32804**. [Not in CVPE.]

21. Hillia parasitica Jacq.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1400 m; scandent shrub 5-6 m, fls. white: 31712; D 6099.

22. Hippotis brevipes Spruce ex K. Schum.
     Sec. for., 1750-1925 m; shrub 2 m, fls. white: F 1043, 1590.

23. Hoffmannia latifolia (Bartl. ex DC.) Kuntze
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; common cauliflorous shrub or tree 1-2 m, fls. pink or red: 27174*, 27297*, 27555*, 27973*, 28699*, 28752*, 30047, 30135*, 30229, 32378; G 73201**; V 12236**. [Not in CVPE.]

24. Hoffmannia cf. obovata (Ruiz & Pav.) Standl.
     Prim. for., 1350-2025 m; cauliflorous shrub to 4 m, fls. yellowish to red-orange: 27129*, 28865*, 30270*, 31221, 32364, 32433; D 6094. [Not in CVPE.]

25. Hoffmannia pauciflora Standl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600 m; shrub 1-2 m, fls. red: D 6081. [Not in CVPE.]

26. Hoffmannia sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 5-6 m: D 6075.

27. Hoffmannia sp. 2
     Rip. for., 1900 m; shrub 2-2.5 m, fls. yellowish-green: 31595.

28. Ladenbergia pavonii (Lamb.) Standl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; tree 5-25 m, fls. white: 27382, 27631 (det. L. Andersson), 28677; N 9774 (det. L. Andersson); Z 147. "Cascarilla"

29. Manettia acutifolia Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; vine with white fls.: 27878*. [Not in CVPE.]

30. Manettia paniculata Poepp. & Endl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1450-2000 m; vine with blue or purplish fls.: 27866*, 30251*, 31699, 31756*.

31. Manettia peruviana Standl.
     Sec. for., upper mont. for., 1300-2750 m; slender vine with white fls.: 27720, 31196*; K 31968*. [Not in CVPE.]

32. Manettia recurva Sprague
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2750 m; herbaceous vine with white fls.: 27959*, 28887*, 30563*, 31510, 31938; D 6118; H 29530*; K 31990*.

33. Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce
     Prim. for., 2000-2750 m; mat-forming, berries orange: 29132; K 32001; Cedeño 19**.

34. Notopleura anomothyrsa (K. Schum. & Donn. Sm.) C. M. Taylor
     Sec. for., 1500 m; subshrub 1-1.5 m, fls. white: 27201**.

35. Notopleura corniculata C. M. Taylor
     Sec. for., 1300 m; shrub 1 m, fls. & frs. white: V 12318** (paratype).

36. Notopleura lateriflora (Standl.) C. M. Taylor
     Prim. for., 1800 m; shrub, fls. white: 27682**. [Not in CVPE.]

37. Notopleura longipedunculoides (C. M. Taylor) C. M. Taylor
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; shrub 2.5 m, fls. white: 27328**. [Not in CVPE.]

38. Notopleura macrophylla (Ruiz & Pav.) C. M. Taylor (s. lat.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; common herb 1-2 m, fls. & frs. white: 27330*, 27469, 27862, 27901, 28022, 28070, 28209*, 28791, 29116(aff.)*, 29226, 30182, 30297, 31257?; C 7178; D 6072, 6109; Mantuano 22. [In the narrow circumscription, these collections may represent Notopleura longissima Bremek.]

39. Palicourea acetosoides Wernham
     Prim. for., 1800-2250 m; shrub 3-5 m, infl. axes yellowish, fls. red: 27322**, 27651, 28548*, 28876*, 28889*, 28981, 29220, 32828; D 6088. "Café de monte" [Application of common name is uncertain.] [Not in CVPE.]

40. Palicourea amethystina (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2700 m; shrub or tree to 10 m, peduncles lavender, fls. blue or purplish: 30517**, 31839; C 5912**; D 6106; F 1093, 1097, 1235; K 31966.

41. Palicourea apicata Kunth
     Prim. for., 1500 m; shrub 1.5-2m, fls. white: D 6107.

42. Palicourea calothyrsus K. Schum. & K. Krause
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2700-2800 m; shrub 1-1.5 m, fls. white or pink, frs. dark blue: 29496**, 30533**, 31522; K 31988*; 00° 01' N 78° 37' W, 2300 m: Valenzuela 780**.

43. Palicourea demissa Standl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1450-2350 m; tree or shrub 2-14 m, peduncles orange, fls. reddish, frs. bluish-green: 27482**, 27972**, 28068*, 29253*, 30095, 31889, 32842; C 39763; F 1011, 1109, 1563; G 73118**; Q15**, 19**, 38**; Delgado 43**; Holm-Nielsen 24467 (det. B. Boom); Montenegro 225**; Nicolalde 337**; Vargas 4062; Zak & Jaramillo 3219**.

44. Palicourea guianensis Aubl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1750 m; shrub or tree 3-5 m, infl. axes yellow: 27131.

45. Palicourea lineata Benth.
     Prim. for., 2000-2225 m; tree to 10 m, peduncles pink to lavender, fls. pale blue: 28946**, 29174**, 29423**, 30138**.

46. Palicourea cf. padifolia (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) C. M. Taylor & D. Lorence
     Prim. for., 1700-1750 m; tree 6 m: 27553. [Not in CVPE.]

47. Palicourea sodiroi Standl.
     Sec. for., 1550-1700 m; tree to 7 m, inf. red: C 39756; G 73241**; Nanegal: Sodiro s. n., July 1874 (type).

     [Palicourea stenosepala Standl., in secondary forest 17 km NW of Nono: Croat 38865**, is likely just south of our boundary].

48. Palicourea cf. stipularis Benth.
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1630 m; treelet, infl. axes reddish: G 69911**.

49. Palicourea thyrsiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2150 m; tree 6 m, peduncles orange: D 6068, 6071.

50. Palicourea sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1500-2000 m; shrub 2.5 m, fls. pink: 28008* [dubious record], 29959.

51. Palicourea sp. 2
     Prim. for., 1900 m; common shrub c. 3 m, infl. axes orange: 29207.

52. Pentagonia cf. macrophylla Benth.
     Rip. for., 1300-1750 m; tree to 17 m; frs. edible: K 31788.

53. Posoqueria coriacea M. Martens & Galeotti (incl. Posoqueria maxima Standl.)
     Prim.for., 1750-1950 m; tree to 17 m: F 1071, 1262**.

54. Posoqueria latifolia (Rudge) Roem. & Schult.
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; tree 10 m: 30253*.

55. Psychotria allenii Standl.
     Sec. for., 1500-2450 m; tree 7-8 m, fls. yellow-green: 30606**; F 1305; Q 134**; T 187.

56. Psychotria amplifrons Standl.
     Rip. for., 1250-1300 m: 27659**; El Pahuma 2000 m: Mantuano 19**; Nanegal Valley: Sodiro, 1874 (type).

57. Psychotria caerulea Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1915 m; shrub or tree 3-5 m, fls. white: 27133, 28216*, 28979, 29110, 31604. "Cafecillo" [Name applied to other species of Psychotria.]

58. Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 3-4 m, fls. white: D 6077.

59. Psychotria chimboracensis Standl.
     Disturbed rip. for., 1300-1440 m; tree 4 m, frs. purplish: 27288**.

60. Psychotria aff. ernestii Krause
     Cerro Sosa, 1700 m; tree or shrub 3 m: C 39741.

61. Psychotria gentryi (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor
     Sec. for., 1250-2100 m; tree or shrub 4-18 m, fls. white: 27596*, 27992*, 28789*, 28906*, 29082*, 29173*, 30023*, 30254, 30256, 31030*, 31157*, 31341*, 31653; D 6069; Z 116.

62. Psychotria hazenii Standl. (incl. Psychotria recordiana Standl.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1350-2000 m; arborescent shrub 2-4 m, fls. white: 28216**, 30129**, 30377**; F 1002**, 1072**, 1098**, 1117**, 1177*, 1519**, 1935**; G 73214**; Z 80**; Delgado 10**; Hurtado 1433**; Nicolalde 341**, 343**; Rojas 397**. "Pigüe"

63. Psychotria sodiroi Standl.
     Nanegal: Sodiro s.n. (Aug 1874) (type).

64. Psychotria steyermarkii Standl.
     Prim. for., 1550-2100 m; shrub 1.5-2 m, fls. white: 28950*; D 6087. [Not in CVPE.]

65. Psychotria sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 4-5 m, fls. white: D 6067, 6084.

66. Psychotria sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1650 m; herb 1 m: 30040.

67. Psychotria sp. 3
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 5-6 m: D 6074.

68. Sabicea villosa var. villosa Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; vine with white fls.: 27376 (det. L. Andersson), 28120; Z 38; Filskov 37068 (det. L. Andersson).

RUTACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Kaastra, R. C. 1982. Flora Neotropica 33: 1-198.

     [Citrus sp., Nanegalito, 1400 m; cult. tree to 5 m: Filskov 37009. "Limon"]

1. Esenbeckia warscewiczii Engl. (vel aff.)
     Sec. for., 1275 m; tree 8 m: 31744. [Capsules are not tuberculate, nor with apophyses; not conspecific with E. grandiflora var. peruviana Macbr.; possibly representing E. dielsiana Shulze, which was referred to the synonymy of E. warscewiczii by Kaastra (1982).]

     [Ruta spp., Nanegalito, 1400 m; cult.: Filskov 37002, 37044. "Ruta" "Salballal"] [Apparently two Ruta species are cultivated.]

2. Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul.
     Loma Pahuamba, 2450-2500 m; treelet 3 m: F 1374.

SABIACEAE (1)
     Refs.: Cuatrecasas, J., & J. M. Idrobo. 1955. Caldasia 7: 187-211. Gentry, A. H. 1986. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 820-824.

1. Meliosma arenosa Idrobo & Cuatrec.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 18 m: F 1255, 1568.

2. Meliosma aff. occidentalis Cuatrec.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1900-1950 m: F 1039.

3. Meliosma aff. violacea Cuatrec. & Idrobo
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; tree 5 m: 30240.

4. Meliosma sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree: G 73152, 73178.

SAPINDACEAE (6)
     Ref.: Croat, T. B. 1976. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 419-540.

1. Allophylus floribundus (Poepp.) Radlk.
     Sec. for., 1250-1950 m; shrub or tree to 12 m, fls. white, frs. orange: 27064, 28106, 29055, 29113, 29334, 29982, 31348, 31704; F 1090. [27722, recorded as a liana with yellow frs., may represent a different species.]

2. Cupania cinerea Poepp.
     Prim. for., 1700-1800 m; tree 6-17 m, fls. cream: C 12424, 39726; F 1566.

3. Matayba sp.
     Prim. for., 1550 m; tree 0.5 m dbh: G 73164.

4. Paullinia cf. fraxinifolia Triana & Planch.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; liana, fls. white: 31267. [Not in CVPE.]

5. Paullinia gigantea Poepp.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1600 m; liana, frs. reddish: 28392, 28960; Nanegal, Sodiro 279 (syntype of Paullinia quitensis Radlk., fide Radlkofer, Bot. Jahrb. 36: 382. 1905).

6. Serjania mollis Kunth
     Sec. for. & scrub, 2000-2300 m; vine: 31818; K 32019. "Bejuco negro"

7. Talisia cerasina (Benth.) Radlk.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1225-1750 m; tree 2.5-6 m, lvs. to 1 m, petals white or pale pink: 27287, 27556, 30441, 31107, 31888; F 1269. "Paragüita" [Not in CVPE.]

SAPOTACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Pennington, T. D. 1990. Fl. Neotropica 52: 1-771.

1. Pouteria cf. collina (Little) T. D. Penn.
     Sec. for., 1300-1700 m; tree 5-15 m, stems with white latex, fls. yellow-green: 30014, 30363, 31749. [31047, with more pointed lvs. & longer petioles, may represent another species.]

SCROPHULARIACEAE (9)
     Ref.: Holmgren, N. N., & U. Molau. 1984. Fl. Ecuador 21: 1-188.

1. Alonsoa meridionalis (L. f.) Kuntze
     Loma Pahuamba, 2300 m; herb, corolla white: F 1249.

2. Bartsia mutica (Kunth) Benth.
     Upper mont. scrub, above Río Pichán, 2500 m; herb with pink fls.: 28094.

3. Calceolaria chelidonioides Kunth
     Clearings in sec. for., 1950-2000 m; herb, fls. yellow fls.: 32442; Delgado 55 (det. U. Molau).

4. Calceolaria crenata Lam.
     Sec. for. & upper mont. scrub, above Río Pichán, 1800-2500 m; herb with yellow fls.: 28087, 30123; Rubio 2080 (det. U. Molau). "Zapatito"

5. Calceolaria perfoliata L. f.
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; scandent herb c. 1 m with yellow fls.: L 13643.

     [Calceolaria tenuis Benth., collected along Calacalí-Nanegalito road, 2175 m: Croat 72874 (det. U. Molau), is only 1' east of our boundary.]

6. Calceolaria tripartita Ruiz & Pav.
    5-10 km above Nanegalito, on road from Nono to Pacto, 00° 00' N 78° 40' W, 1700 m; fls. light yellow: Holm-Nielsen 24439 (det. U. Molau).

7. Castilleja arvensis Schltdl. & Cham.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2000 m; herb with pink or red bracts: 27144, 28268, 30124, 30465; Z 28; Filskov 37056 (det. N. H. Holmgren). "Candelilla"

8. Escobedia grandiflora (L. f.) Kuntze
     Scrub, El Carmen to Marianitas, 1200-1300 m; herb to 1 m, fls. white: 27090, 27167. "Malva blanca"

9. Lamourouxia virgata Kunth
     Prim. for. & upper mont. scrub, 1800-2500 m; herb with pink fls.: 28095; K 31960; Rubio 2077 (det. U. Molau), 2416. "Falsa dedalera"

10. Leucocarpus perfoliatus (Kunth) Benth.
     Sec. for., 1950-2175 m; herb with yellow fls.: 28080, 30086, 31613, 32405; C 5945; J. F. Smith 1981.

11. Scoparia dulcis L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; weedy herb, fls. white: 27192, 27408, 28154. "Tía tina", "Pedepe"

12. Stemodia suffruticosa Kunth
     Sec. for., 1875-2100 m; subshrub to 1.5 m, fls. bluish: 30079, 30476, 31632; C 5943 (det. K. Barringer); Hurtado 1429.

SIMAROUBACEAE (1)

1. Picramnia sp.
     Rip. for., Río Umachaca, 1250 m; tree 8 m: 31649. [Verification of Simaroubaceae in our area is needed, as the single collection is vegetative.]

SOLANACEAE (18) (* det. S. Knapp; ** det. E. Dean; *** det. M. Nee)
     Refs.: D'Arcy, W. G. 1973. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 573-780. Knapp, S., et al. 1997. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 84: 67-89; 1998. Novon 8: 152-161.

1. Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; shrub or tree 5-8 m, fls. white or yellowish, fragrant: 28155, 28282, 31715.

2. Browallia americana L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1675 m; herb with blue fls.: 27197, 27423, 29048, 30360.

3. Browallia speciosa Hook.
     Sec. for., 1300-1800 m; herb with blue fls.: 28271, 30743, 31334.

4. Brugmansia candida Pers.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; shrub or tree to 6 m, fls. pendent, white: 28222 (det. A. Holguín), 28720, 31335**, 31717, 31761. [Some of these specimens previously determined as Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Bercht. & J. Presl.] "Floripondio blanco"

5. Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh.
     Prim. for., 1200-1700 m; tree 6 m, fls. white, with narrowing throat: 28897 (det. A. Holguín); Q 58*; T 144* (det. confirmed by A. Holguín). [It appears that we indeed have two white-flowered species of Brugmansia at Maquipucuna.]

6. Capsicum geminifolium (Dammer) Hunz.
     Sec. for., 2075-2100 m; shrub 1 m, corolla yellow: 30501 (det. N. W. Sawyer).

7. Capsicum lycianthoides Bitter
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2100 m; shrub 1-2.5 m, fls. yellow, frs. red or orange: 27143***, 27493***, 27602***, 27714**, 27888**, 27984***, 28749***, 28856***, 29094**, 29217**, 29283**, 29345**, 30044***, 32907; P 3591***; Z 82; Delgado 38***.

8. Cestrum humboldtii Francey
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; shrub or tree to 7 m, corolla cream: Nicolalde 361***; Zak & Jaramillo 3214***.

9. Cestrum megalophyllum Dunal
     Sec. for., 1250-2150 m; shrub or tree to 10 m, fls. white or pale yellow, frs. purplish: 27198, 27256, 27633, 27707, 29051, 29096(?), 29098, 31006, 32362; F 1006, 1297, 1297A, 1528; G 73228***; Z 45, 201. "Sauco negro"

10. Cestrum peruvianum Hort. Roth. ex Dunal
     Upper mont. & rip. for., 2000-2400 m; shrub 2-3 m, frs. purplish-black: 31204***, 31248***, 32812, 32833. "Sauco"

11. Cuatresia colombiana Hunz.
     Rip. for., Quebrada Santa Rosa, 2000-2050 m; shrub 1.5 m, corolla yellow: 31243**, 31250**, 31832, 32857***. [Not in CVPE.]

12. Cuatresia harlingiana Hunz.
     Rip. & sec. for., 1250-1900 m; shrub or subshrub 0.5-2.5 m, corolla white with purple center: 31151**, 31168***, 31688***, 32927; F 1026***.

13. Cuatresia riparia (Kunth) Hunz.
     Sec. for., 1600 m; shrub 1.5 m, fls. yellow: 30346**, 32957**.

14. Cuatresia sp. 1
     Rip. for., Quebrada Santa Rosa, 2000 m; shrub 1 m, corolla purple with white border: 31240**.

15. Cuatresia sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1650 m; shrub 1.5 m, fls. & fr. white: 31133**.

16. Deprea glabra (Standl.) Hunziker
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; shrub 4 m, fls. blue-green: C 7183***.

17. Deprea granulosa (Miers) Hunz. & Barbosa
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1700 m; herb 1 m, fls. yellow: 28345.

     [Dunalia solanacea Kunth, collected at 2700 m near Yunguillas: 31529, and at 2000 m: Dodson & Thien 1081, may occur within our area.]

18. Iochroma calycinum Benth.
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; shrub 2 m, fls. & frs. violet: Zak & Jaramillo 3248***.

19. Jaltomata glandulosa (Miers) R. Castillo & R. E. Schult.
     Roadside, 2000 m; viscid herb 0.5 m, corolla lavender: 32401.

20. Jaltomata procumbens (Cav.) J. L. Gentry
     Sec. for., 1150-1750 m; herb c. 1 m, corolla yellow or white with yellow-green spots: 27185, 27387, 27422, 28838, 30062, 31884, 33597. "Yana cucuna"

21. Jaltomata sinuosa (Miers) Mione
     Rip. for., 2000 m; herb with clammy foliage, corolla whitish with purple center: 31234 (det. T. Mione).

22. Juanulloa pavonii (Miers) Benth. & Hook. f. (= Markea pavonii (Miers) D'Arcy)
     Sec. for., 1200-1750 m; ep. (?) liana or tree with vine-like branches, to 15 m, fls. green: 27719, 27723, 28961*, 30039, 32368. [Elsewhere in Ecuador recorded from lower elevations, < 700 m.]

23. Larnax sachapapa Hunz.
     5-10 km above Nanegalito, on road from Nono to Pacto, 00° 00' N 78° 40' W, 1700 m; scandent, corolla greenish: Holm-Nielsen 24445***.

24. Lycianthes acutifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Bitter
     Sec. for., 1600-2100 m; shrub 2-4 m, corolla white, frs. red: 30201***, 30376, 31690, 31768, 32416, 32793.

25. Lycianthes aff. acutifolia (Ruiz. & Pav.) Bitter
     Rip. for., Quebrada Santa Rosa, 2000-2050 m; shrub, fls. white: 31244**; El Pahuma, 1960-2000 m; shrub to 4 m: Mantuano 25; Nicolalde 338.

26. Lycianthes dendriticothrix Bitter
     1900-2000 m; shrub 1 m, fls. white: Zak & Jaramillo 3239*. [Not in CVPE.]

27. Lycianthes inaequilatera (Rusby) Bitter
     Prim. for., 1750-2030 m; shrub 2-4 m, fls. white: 30208**, 30230**, 32858**, 32945**.

28. Lycianthes radiata (Sendtn.) Bitter
     Sec. & rip. for., 1400-2300 m; shrub 2 m, fls. white: 30050***, 31752; F 1443; Rojas 405***.

29. Markea spruceana Hunziker
     Rip. for., Río Alambi, 2200-2500 m; ep. shrub to 3 m, corolla purple or greenish: Sparre 15992 (type, cited by Knapp, 1998).

30. Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn.
     Disturbed areas, 1950-2000 m; herb c. 0.5 m, frs. green: 31612. "Ambo"

31. Physalis aff. angulata L.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub to 2-3 m: Rojas 403.

32. Physalis peruviana L.
     Cleared areas, 1800 m; shrub 1 m: C 13108. "Uvilla"

33. Physalis pubescens L.
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; herb with yellow fls.: 28054; Z 153, 187. "Uvilla"

34. Schultesianthus leucanthus (Donn. Sm.) Hunz.
     Prim. for., 1800-1900 m; liana with yellow fls.: 29264*.

35. Solanum acerifolium Dunal
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; shrub 1-1.5 m, fls. yellow: 27232, 27401*, 27918; Z 36; Filskov 37111***.

36. Solanum aphyodendron S. Knapp
     Sec. for., 1300-2200 m; shrub or tree 5-10 m, fls. white: 32906***; Zak & Jaramillo 3256***.

37. Solanum asperolanatum Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1400-2200 m; tree or shrub 3-6 m, fls. white: 27142***, 27239, 28082***; Z 226; Rojas 401; Zak & Jaramillo 3234***. "Tambor"

38. Solanum barbulatum Zahlbr.
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; shrub 4 m, fls. & frs. green: C 7194***.

39. Solanum betaceum Cav.
     Sec. for., 1400 m; tree 2 m: Filskov 37010 (det. L. Bohs). "Tomate"

40. Solanum brevifolium Dunal
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; herb. vine, corolla white, frs. red-orange: 27004***, 27761, 31007***, 31729. "Veneno de perro", "Tomatillo de monte"

41. Solanum candidum Lindl.
     Sec. for. & pastures, 1300 m; shrub 1-1.5 m, fls. white: 27406*. "Berenjena"

42. Solanum caripense Dunal
     Prim. for., 2000-2100 m; herb or vine, calyx violet, corolla white: 31282***, 32853; P 3639***; Delgado 68.

43. Solanum circinatum Bohs
     Prim. for., 2075-2100 m; arborescent shrub 3 m, petals white with purple midstrip: 30492**. "Tomate de monte"

44. Solanum cornifolium Dunal
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2500-2700 m; tree 5 m, fls. white: 30598***.

45. Solanum cucullatum S. Knapp
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2000 m; shrub or tree to 8 m, fls. white, frs. green, 5-6 cm in diam.: 27257*, 27554*, 27922, 28248*, 28698, 31016***, 31253, 31599; C 5931*; S. Espinoza 729*; Delgado 5; Rojas 395; Rubio 2086*. "Kujaco" [Some specimens were determined as S. abitaguense S. Knapp.]

46. Solanum cf. dolosum S. Knapp
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; treelet 5 m: C 7172***.

47. Solanum fallax Bohs
     Prim. & sec. for., 1175-2100 m; arborescent shrub 2-3 m, fls. white or greenish tinged with purple: 27585, 27710 (det. L. Bohs), 28810, 31103**; Z 227.

48. Solanum furcatum Dunal
     Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m; many branched herb to 50 cm: Filskov 37018. "Yerba Mora"

49. Solanum juglandifolium Dunal
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2500 m; clambering vine, fls. yellow: 27076, 28043, 28187, 28318, 30496, 31776, 32767; C 13051; L 13645***; V 12268; Holm-Nielsen 24450***.

50. Solanum laevigatum Dunal
     Upper mont. for., 2300-2500 m; shrub or tree to 5 m, corolla white: 30573***; F 1420*.

51. Solanum lepidotum Dunal
     Sec. for., 1250 m; tree 7 m, fls. pale green: 29052*; T 204*.

52. Solanum macrotonum Bitter
     Sec. for., 1900-1950 m; herb 1 m, fls. white: 30110 (det. N. W. Sawyer).

53. Solanum muricatum Aiton
     Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m; cult.?; fl. buds purple-white: Filskov 37018. "Pepino"

54. Solanum nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti
     Sec. for., 1350-2750 m; weedy herb, fls. white: 31218***, 31514; Z 185; Croat 72877***; El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub to 3-4 m: Rojas 392. "Hierba mora"

55. Solanum nudum Dunal
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; shrub 2 m, fls. white: 28309*; El Pahuma, 2650 m; shrub 3-4 m: Nicolalde 364.

56. Solanum nutans Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1725-2475 m; shrub or tree 4-5 m, fls. white: 31931*; F 1289 (cf.)***, 1395.

57. Solanum ovalifolium Dunal
     Sec. for., 1200-1550 m; weedy shrub or tree to 6 m, fls. white: 27413***, 29250, 30263***, 31100; Z 13. "Sauco lanudo"

58. Solanum quitoense Lam.
     Sec. for., 1375 m; shrub, lvs. purplish beneath, fls. white: C 6856***; Z 225; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Cedeño 36. [These collections represent the cultivated "Naranjilla", which is widely grown in the area, but escapes to some extent; although presumably native to Ecuador, it may well be introduced in the Nanegal region.]

59. Solanum rudepannum Dunal
     Sec. for., 1200-1350 m; shrub or tree to 3.5 m, fls. white: 28147. "Tululucha"

60. Solanum schlechtendalianum Walp.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1400-1750 m; shrub or tree to 6 m, fls. white: 27206, 28756, 30417.

61. Solanum ternatum Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; creeping vine, lvs. pinnatifid: 29086 [specimen barren, determination provisional].

62. Trianaea nobilis Planch. & Linden
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2300 m; liana with pendent yellow-green fls.: 27276*, 28924, 29288*, 31268*, 32942; F 1086(?); Zak & Jaramillo 3229*.

STAPHYLEACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Macbride, J. F. 1951. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. 13(3A,1): 233-235.

1. Huertea glandulosa Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. for., 1500-1700 m; tree to 12 m, lvs. pinnate, frs. green: 32756; G 73136; Q 35.

2. Turpinia occidentalis (Sw.) G. Don
     Prim. for., 1500-2300 m; tree 10-18 m, lvs. trifoliolate: C 7191 (det. R. Liesner); F 1423, 1468; Q 4. "Cuero de puerco"

STYRACACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Gonsoulin, G. J. 1974. Sida 5: 191-258.

1. Styrax argenteus C. Presl var. ramirezii (Greenm.) Gonsoulin
     Prim. for., 1750-2470 m; tree 12-20 m, fls. pink: 30612; F 1239, 1276, 1367, 1497; Vargas 4076. [Not in CVPE.]

SYMPLOCACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Stahl, B. 1991. Fl. Ecuador 43: 1-57.

1. Symplocos sp.
     Sec. for., 1225 m; white flowers fallen on trail: 31164. [Species uncertain because of incomplete material; differing from the relatively few species of Symplocos from northern Ecuador, especially at the low elevation, by the large white fls. with many stamens. Possibly an undescribed species.]

THEACEAE (2) (* det. A. L. Weitzman)
     Ref.: Kobuski, C. 1941. J. Arnold Arb. 22: 457-496.

1. Freziera canescens Bonpl.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1800-2700 m; tree to 15 m, fls. white: 30447, 30602; C 7185*; K 31984. "Guatzhic"

2. Freziera verrucosa (Hieron.) Kobuski
     Sec. for., 1300-2650 m; shrub or tree to 17 m, fls. white: 27989*, 29081*, 29259; F 1294*, 1432*; T 148*; Holm-Nielsen 24412*; Nicolalde 370*. "Turo aliso"

3. Gordonia fruticosa (Schrad.) H. Keng
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; tree 20-25 m, fls. white: Nicolalde 383*.

THEOPHRASTACEAE (1) (* det. B. Stahl)

1. Clavija aff. eggersiana Mez
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; unbranched treelet 1-2.5 m: 32741; F 1510; Stahl 4046*.

THYMELAEACEAE (2) (* det. K. Barringer)
     Ref.: Nevling, L. I. 1959. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 46: 257-358.

1. Daphnopsis grandis Nevling & Barringer
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1725 m; shrub or tree 3-15 m, fls. pale yellow, frs. white: 31045*, 31054*, 31144*, 31329, 31650, 31689; T 166*."Sapan"

2. Schoenobiblus sp.
     Sec. for., 1600 m: T 600 [perhaps confused with Daphnopsis grandis].

TILIACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Lay, K. K. 1950. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37: 315-395.

1. Luehea sp.
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1600 m; tree 15 m: 30350.

2. Triumfetta grandiflora Vahl
     Sec. for., 1300-1675 m; shrub or tree to 10 m, corollla yellow: 27718, 28042, 28188, 28700; T 206; Z 40. "Yausa", "Caudillo", "Balsilla"

3. Triumfetta mollissima Kunth
     1900-2200 m; shrub to 60 cm, corolla pink: Zak & Jaramillo 3255 (det. W. Meijer).

TOVARIACEAE (1)

1. Tovaria pendula Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2200 m; shrub 1-3 m, infls. pendulous, fls. greenish: 28083, 30210, 31621, 32394, 32750; P 3616; Zak & Jaramillo 3216.

TROPAEOLACEAE (1) (* det. P. M. Jørgensen)
     Refs.: Sparre, B. 1973. Fl. Ecuador 2: 1-30; Sparre, B. & L. Andersson. 1991. Opera Bot. 108: 1-139.

1. Tropaeolum adpressum Hughes
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1950 m; vine, calyx scarlet with green tip, petals purple: 27677*, 27734, 28855, 30329, 31580, 31771, 33584; Sparre 19327(?) ("at Alambi").

2. Tropaeolum cf. pubescens Kunth
     Prim. for., 2000-2100 m; vine, calyx orange-red with green tip: 30177, 31535.

3. Tropaeolum stipulatum Buchenau
     Upper mont. for., 2450 m; vine, calyx pink with yellow-green tip: 29490.

4. Tropaeolum sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; vine: 29107.

ULMACEAE (2)

1. Trema micrantha (L.) Blume
     Sec. for., 1250-2200 m; tree 5-12 m, fls. greenish: 27930, 29258, 29336; G 73192; Z 161; Zak & Jaramillo 3223 (det. R. Liesner). "Sapán", "Chale"

2. Lozanella permollis Killip & C. V. Morton
     Loma Pahuamba, 2300 m; tree 10 m: F 1449.

URTICACEAE (6)
     Refs.: Killip, E. P. 1939. Contr. U. S. Nat. Heb. 26: 475-530; 1960. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 47: 179-198.

1. Boehmeria aspera Wedd.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; shrub 1-1.5 m: 27295, 32780.

2. Boehmeria bullata Kunth
     Sec. for., 1850-2000 m; shrub 1-4 m: 30454.

3. Boehmeria caudata Sw.
     Sec. for., 1250-1700 m; shrub 1-5 m: 27007 (det. R. Liesner), 27243, 32746; N 9784; Z 118. "Ortiguilla"

4. Myriocarpa stipitata Benth.
     Rip. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; shrub 2-3 m, spikes pendent, yellowish: 31745, 31851. "Ortiguilla macho"

5. Phenax hirtus (Sw.) Wedd.
     Sec. to upper mont. for., 1200-2700 m; herb or shrub to 2 m: 27895, 28310, 30532(?), 32862.

6. Phenax laevigatus Wedd.
     Rip. for., 2000 m; shrub 3 m: 31838.

7. Phenax rugosus (Poir.) Wedd.
     Prim. for., 1800-2600 m: 31219, 32389; C 13095; C. Espinoza 12 (ep.). "Ashpa ortiga"

8. Pilea cf. antioquiensis Killip
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2025 m; herb to 0.5 m, fls. pink or reddish: 27188, 27485, 27892, 28071, 29042, 29176, 29211; Z 43.

9. Pilea aff. dauciodora Wedd. ex Pav.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; urticant herb to 0.15 m, fls. pink: Cedeño 18.

10. Pilea cf. fendleri Killip
     Prim. for., 2000-2350 m; creeping herb: 29453, 31247. [Not in CVPE.]

11. Pilea cf. flexuosa Wedd.
     Muddy banks in rip. for., 2000 m; terr., 0.3 m: 31840.

12. Pilea cf. goudotiana Wedd.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1650-2100 m; ep. or terr., stems pink, fls. greenish: 29212, 31059, 32860.

13. Pilea hitchcockii Killip ?
     Upper mont. for., 2725 m; ep. vine on log: K 31978; El Pahuma, 2000 m; creeping herb 0.25 m: Delgado 13 (cf.).

14. Pilea involucrata (Sims) Urb.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; terr., stems reddish, infls. yellow-green, flattened against upper lvs. in one plane: 32905.

15. Pilea jamesoniana Wedd.
     Upper mont. for., 2700-2750 m; trailing herb or epiphytic vine: 30523; H 29524.

16. Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.
     Banks, sec. & sec. upper mont. for., 1700-2300 m; terr.: K 31961; L 11344.

17. Pilea myriantha Killip
     Sec. for., 1800-2100 m; stems c. 1 m, lvs. aromatic, fls. red: 32751, 32856.

18. Pilea pubescens Liebm.
     Sec. for., 1400-1500 m; on mossy banks, fls. greenish: 27204.

19. Pilea cf. puracensis Killip
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-1750 m; erect, fls. greenish: 27132. [Not in CVPE.]

20. Pilea sp. 1
     Rip. for., 2000 m; shrub 1.5 m, with viny branches.: 31817.

21. Pilea sp. 2
     Upper mont. for., 2750-2800 m; erect, stems reddish, lvs. thick & dull reddish beneath: 31523.

22. Pilea sp. 3 (aff. pubescens Liebm.?)
     Sec. for., 1250-1275 m; spreading herb, stems rooting at nodes but becoming erect: 31876.

     [Additional collections of Pilea remain unidentified to species.]

23. Pouzolzia sp.
     5-10 km above Nanegalito, on road from Nono to Pacto, 00° 00' N 78° 40' W, 1700 m; shrub 1 m, infls. greenish: Holm-Nielsen 24438.

24. Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. ex Wedd.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; urticant shrub 1-1.5 m, infl. axes purplish: 27327, 27400, 27952, 30223; C 5949; G 69938; Z 96; Nicolalde 335, 340 (shrub to 3-5 m). "Ortiga"

25. Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb.
     Loma Pahuamba, 1750 m; tree 8 m, lvs. urticant: F 1517.

26. Urera eggersii Hieron.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; shrub 1.5 m, lvs. urticant, fls. clear pink: Cedeño 35.

VALERIANACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Eriksen, B. 1989. Fl. Ecuador 34: 1-59.

1. Valeriana chaerophylloides Sm. (= Astrephia chaerophylloides (Sm.) DC.)
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; flaccid herb with white fls.: 27178, 27420, 27931, 32788. "Huanhuan"

2. Valeriana clematitis Kunth
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; liana to 2-3 m, fls. white with purple-tipped lobes: L 13641 (det. B. Eriksen).

3. Valeriana scandens L.
     Sec. for., El Pacchal, 1300-1500 m; vine with white fls.: 27875, 31886.

VERBENACEAE (7) (* det. R. Liesner)
     Ref.: Moldenke, H. N. 1973. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 41-148.

1. Aegiphila alba Moldenke
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; tree 5-15 m, fls. white, fragrant: 28394, 29035, 30519, 32843; N 8642*; Q 81*; T 165*; Z 69, 234. [30519 differs in its more distant lateral veins & conspicuous reticulation, and may not be conspecific.] "Palo blanco", "Jiguerón"

2. Callicarpa sp. ?
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1500-2000 m; tree 6 m: 28032 [fls. only in bud; perhaps not this genus].

3. Cornutia microcalycina Moldenke
     Sec. for. along Río Umachaca, 1200-1350 m; tree 12-18 m, corolla purple: 28145, 31169; T 192*; Z 148. [Not in CVPE. Our form best matches var. pulverulenta Moldenke (Repert. Sp. Nov. 40: 175. 1936); Ecuadorean plants, including T 192, have been called C. pyramidata L., considered by Moldenke to be a Caribbean species; our plants have been collected at higher elevations than species of Cornutia elsewhere in Ecuador.]

4. Duranta repens L. (s. lat.)
     Sec. for., east of Tandayapa, 1700 m; shrub 2 m, branches pendent, frs. yellowish: 32763.

5. Duranta sprucei Briq.
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; shrub, corolla turquoise at base, lobes white tinged with purple: C 7174.

6. Lantana camara L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; common shrub 1.5 m, fls. orange & red: 27084; Z 44. "Supirrosa"

7. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) M. Vahl
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; common herb with blue fls.: 27427; Z 158; Filskov 37069(?). "Verbena negra", "Verbena azul"

8. Verbena litoralis Kunth
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; common herb with bluish fls.: 27436, 32846; Z 27; Cedeño 39; Filskov 37007, 37125 (both det. B. Øllgaard). "Verbena"

VIOLACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Smith, L. B., & A. Fernández-Pérez. 1954. Caldasia 6: 83-181.

1. Viola scandens Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
     Prim. for., 2175-2400 m; herb with yellow fls.: 29180, 32811.

     [Viola sp. 1, Nanegalito, gardens & fields, 1400 m; purple fls.: Filskov 37003, 37032. "Violeta"]

VITACEAE (2) (* det. J. A. Lombardi)
     Refs.: Elias, T. S. 1968. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 55: 81-92; Lombardi, J. A. 1995. Taxon 44: 195-206; 1997. Novon 7: 182-185. 2000. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 80:1-250, 2001. Fl. Ecuador. 67: 1-36

1. Cissus alata Jacq. ?
     Upper mont. for., 2750-2800 m; vine with trifoliolate lvs., greenish fls.: 31531 [determination provisional; similar to C. obliqua, but stems & lvs. distinctly pubescent].

2. Cissus anisophylla Lombardi
     Sec. for., 1300-1750 m; vine with coarse, simple lvs., frs. large & brown, often producing pseudofruits due to fungal infection (Mycosyrinx cissi): 29118*, 30024*, 30330*, 31728*, 32959*; Z 81, 181. "Escoba de bruja"

3. Cissus obliqua Ruiz & Pav. (incl. Cissus andina Dugand)
     Sec. & rip. for., 1900-2500 m; vine with trifoliolate lvs., greenish fls.: 31537*, 31846*, 32448*, 32813; Mantuano 8; Sparre 17018*. "Mano de sapo"

4. Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C. E. Jarvis
     Sec. for., 1200-1750 m; vine with simple lvs., green fls.: 28276*. [Listed in most manuals as C. sicyoides L.] "Bejuco de agua"

5. Vitis tiliifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; common liana: 27884. "Bejuco de agua"

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