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ANGIOSPERMAE: MONOCOTS (9 August 2005 Revision)

AGAVACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Cerón, C. E. 1994. Hombre y Ambiente 31: 5-38.

1. Furcraea cf. andina Trel.
     Fields & pastures, 1200-1250 m; plants 10-12 m, fls. greenish-white: 28299, 31000. "Cabuyo blanco"

ALSTROEMERIACEAE (1) (* det. M. Neuendorf)
     Refs.: Sodiro, L. 1908. Sert. Fl. Ecuador. 2: 43-57. Neuendorf, M. 1977. Bot. Notiser 130: 55-60. Harling, G. & M. Neuendorf. 2003. Fl. Ecuador 71: 1-108.

1. Bomarea multiflora Mirb. ssp. caldasii (Kunth) Neuend.
     Prim. and upper mont. for. & scrub, 2000-2750 m; perianth orange: 28097, 30153*; F 1284; H 29544; K 31985; Mantuano 27.

2. Bomarea pardina Herb.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2250 m; vine hanging from trees, sepals rose-pink, petals white spotted with purple: 28954, 29079, 30472*, 30495, 31142*, 31195, 32837, 32939; Holm-Nielsen 24411*; Nanegal, 1800 m: Jameson 394*. [This species with spectacularly showy flowers has been placed in a new section by Neuendorf (1977).]

3. Bomarea patacosensis Herb.
     Sec. for., 1800-2500 m; vine with purplish bracts, perianth yellowish, with purplish spots inside: C 7180 (det. by R. E. Gereau as Bomarea foliosa Sodiro); L 13649*.

AMARYLLIDACEAE (2)
     Ref.: Meerow, A. W. 1990. Fl. Ecuador 41: 1-52.

1. Eucharis moorei (Baker) Meerow
     Sec. for., 1300 m; gregarious; fls. snowy white, fragrant: 33587.

2. Eucrosia dodsonii Meerow & Dehgan
     At edge of banana plantation, Hacienda El Carmen, 1250 m; fls. yellow: 29550.

ARACEAE (8) (* det. T. Croat)
     Refs.: Sodiro, L. 1903. Antúrios ecuatorianos. 1-231. Engler, A. 1905. Das Pflanzenreich IV.23B (Heft 21): 1-330. Engler, A., & K. Krause. 1913. Das Pflanzenreich IV.23Db (Heft 60): 1-143. Croat, T. B. 1983. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 211-420. Croat, T. B. & N. Lambert. 1986. Aroideana 9: 3-213.

     [Presentation of the taxa of Araceae would have been impossible without the generous assistance of Dr. Thomas Croat (MO). The interpretation of the many names published by Sodiro in Anthurium is difficult, and the synonymy given here must be regarded as provisional.]

1. Anthurium argyrostachyum Sodiro (incl. A. pandurifolium Sodiro)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1100-1750 m; terr. or hemiep., spathe & spadix green: 27152*, 27338*, 28795*, 30409*; G 73235*; Asplund 17268*; Croat 38882, 38902, 38909, 82724; Nanegal Valley; scandent: Sodiro s.n, 3/1900.

2. Anthurium aristatum Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1175-2000 m; ep. vine, spathe &spadix green or reddish: 27915*, 28748*, 28813*, 29347*, 30161*, 30351*; C. Espinoza 41; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., Jan 1901 (type).

3. Anthurium brachypodum Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2000 m; terr., to 1 m, spathe green, spadix whitish: 30035*, 30140*.

     [Anthurium carchiense Croat, at 2175 m: Croat 72885, was found just east of the area.]

4. Anthurium citrifolium Sodiro
     Nanegal Valley; scandent: Sodiro s.n., 1901; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 7/1903 [A. citrifolium var. verruculosum Sodiro?] (type).

5. Anthurium clathratum Sodiro
     Nanegal (Gualea); terr.: Sodiro s.n., Dec 1900 [known only from the type; status somewhat uncertain].

6. Anthurium cordiforme Sodiro
     Prim. for., 1550-1700 m; hemiep.: C 39749; G 69922*, 73123*, 73155*; Nanegal Valley, near Auca: Sodiro s.n., July 1906 (type).

7. Anthurium corrugatum Sodiro (incl. A. dictyophyllum Sodiro)
     Sec. for., 2100 m; scandent: Smith 1974*; Nanegal and Gualea: Sodiro s.n. (type of A. dictyophyllum Sodiro).

8. Anthurium cupulispathum Croat & J. Rodr.
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; ep., spathe green, spadix purple: N 9795*.

9. Anthurium divaricatum Sodiro (status somewhat uncertain, held by some to be synonym of Anthurium truncicolum Engl.)
     Subtrop. for., Nanegal Valley; scandent: Sodiro s.n., 3/1900; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., May 1901.

10. Anthurium dolichostachyum Sodiro
     Prim. for., 1500-2600 m; terr. or ep., spathe green, spadix white or greenish to yellow: 28203*, 30207*; C 31718; F 1031, 1061; G 69910*; Croat 50240, 50237A, 72887, 72896, 82704; C. Espinoza 21; Hurtado 1427*; Suin 349*, 396*, 404*. "Puchsi"

11. Anthurium giganteum Engl.
     Sec. for., 1200-2600 m; terr., spadix reddish: 27242*, 27335*, 27997*; C 12426*; G 73148*, 73159*; Croat 38888, 72892; C. Espinoza 28 (ep.); Filskov 37129*; Leimbeck 311*; Suin 378*(ep.).

12. Anthurium gualeanum Engl.
     Nanegal; terr.: Sodiro s.n., 1900. [ = A. cochliodes Sodiro; said by Sodiro to be the most robust of all the Ecuadorean species, with lvs. to 1.5 x 0.9 m; Nanegal-Gualea: Sodiro s.n., Nov. 1901 (type).]

13. Anthurium holmnielsenii Croat
     Prim. for., 2200-2250 m; terr., spathe & spadix green: 29417*.

14. Anthurium incomptum Madison,
     Between Calacalí & Nanegalito, 1000(?)-2175 m; terr., spathe green, spreading, spadix green, turning purple: Croat 72886, 82734.

15. Anthurium incurvatum Engl.
     Nanegal; scandent: Sodiro s.n.

16. Anthurium jimenae Croat
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2500 m; ep., petioles over 1 m, spathe white or pinkish, spadix pink: 30581*.

17. Anthurium laciniosum Sodiro
     Nanegal Valley; scandent: Sodiro s.n.

18. Anthurium lancea Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2225 m; mostly terr., sometimes ep. or scandent, lvs. to 1.5 m, spathe & spadix green: 27148*, 27827*, 28197*, 29206, 29414*, 30494*, 31680, 31706; T 200*; Cedeño 3*; S. Espinoza 725*.

19. Anthurium latemarginatum Sodiro
     Between Nanegal and Gualea: Sodiro s.n., 12/1900 [known only from the type].

20. Anthurium longicaudatum Engl.
     Prim. for., 1350-2225 m; terr. & ep., spathe & spadix green to reddish or brown: 27600*, 29137*, 29139*, 29165*, 29431*, 30188*, 32367; C 5898*; Hurtado 1418*.

21. Anthurium margaricarpum Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; ep., spathe green to brownish, purplish, or reddish, spadix green: 27481*, 27595*, 27634, 27652*, 28119*, 28127*, 29121*, 29307*, 29634*, 30294*, 30313*, 30404*, 30508*, 31757, 32917; Leimbeck 302*; [Gualea: Sodiro s.n. (type)].

22. Anthurium microspadix Schott (incl. A. lepturum Sodiro & A. nanegalense Sodiro)
     Prim. for., 1250-2400 m; terr., scrambling, or ep., spathe & spadix green: 27687*, 28728*, 29131*, 29203*, 30277*, 30509*, 31214*, 31740, 32411, 32963; F 1390; Cedeño 4*; Croat 82731; Suin 432*; [Gualea: Sodiro s.n. (type of A. nanegalense Sodiro)]. [A. gracilescens Sodiro & A. stenophyllum Sodiro, based on Sodiro collections in the Nanegal Valley, are probable synonyms.]

23. Anthurium mindense Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. to upper mont. for., 1200-2600 m; climbing, spathe mostly green, spadix reddish or purple: 27171*, 27233*, 27306*, 27317*, 27393, 27647, 28035*, 28076, 28269, 28763*, 29418, 29448*, 30413*, 30434b*, 30569*, 31681, 31897; C 5900*; L 14039*; N 8650*; Cedeño 11*; Hurtado 1422. "Piquihua"

24. Anthurium nigrescens Engl. (incl. A. malacophyllum Sodiro)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1800-2000 m; ep., scandent, spathe & spadix green: 30158*, 30180*, 32426?; Hurtado 1439*; Suin 354*.

25. Anthurium "nonoense" Croat (ined.)
     Sec. for., 1450 m; ep., spadix green, curved: Croat 38900.

     [Anthurium obovatum Sodiro, type from Gualea: Sodiro s.n., Feb. 1900, may be found near Nanegal.]

26. Anthurium obtusum (Engl.) Grayum
     Subtrop. for., Nanegal Valley; ep.: Sodiro s.n.

27. Anthurium ochreatum Sodiro (incl. A. crebrinerve Sodiro)
     Prim. & rip. for., 1600-2400 m; terr. or hemiep. vine, spathe pale green, spadix green or yellow: 28230*, 31058*, 31073*, 31252*; F 1033; G 73198*; N 8657*; Z 110; Croat 82730; forests of Nanegal & Gualea: Sodiro s.n., Nov. 1900 (type); Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., Dec. (type of A. crebrinerve Sodiro); Suin 415.

28. Anthurium oreophilum Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1750-2100 m; ep.: 30036*; Schwertfeger 21132*.

29. Anthurium orteganum Engl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; terr. & ep., spathe green, spadix reddish or purple: 27487*, 27654*, 27797*, 27798*. [31603, from 1920 m; an ep. vine with yellow spadix, may not belong here.] [Omitted from CVPE.]

30. Anthurium ovatifolium Engl. (incl. A. elatius Sodiro, A. erectum Sodiro, A. macrostachyum Sodiro, A. miconiifolium Sodiro, A. pachyphyllum Sodiro, A. quitense Sodiro, A. soederstroemii Sodiro)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2400 m; terr. & ep., spathe greenish, spadix brown: 27645*, 27998*, 28793*, 29231, 29429*, 30049*, 30160*, 30426*, 31900, 32427; Croat 72871, 82720; S. Espinoza 726*; Suin 419*, 421*; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 1/1901 (type of A. elatius), Sodiro s.n, 6/1906 (type of A. erectum), Sodiro s.n., 03/1905 (type of A. macrostachyum); Nanegal Valley: Sodiro s.n., 3/1902 (as A. miconiifolium); Nanegal Valley near Auca: Sodiro s.n. [53], 12/1900 (type of A. quitense); Nanegal: Sodiro s.n. (as A. soederstroemii). "Plato quiro"

31. Anthurium pallatangense Engl.
     Prim. for., 1900-2225 m; terr., spathe & spadix green: 29413*, 30189*; Luteyn & Lebrón-Luteyn 6523.

32. Anthurium patulum Sodiro
     Nanegal; scandent: Sodiro s.n, 1900.

33. Anthurium penningtonii Croat
     Rip. for., 1900-2500 m; terr., spathe greenish-brown, spadix purple: 29457*, 31588*; C 32420*.

34. Anthurium plurisulcatum Sodiro
     "Near Pahuma": Sodiro s.n., June 1906 (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 81; known only from the type).

35. Anthurium propinquum Sodiro
     Sec. for., 1000-2000 m; terr., 0.8-1.7 m, spathe yellow-green, fl. spadix cream, fr. spadix brown: 27914*, 31601*; Croat 82727; Leimbeck 301, 310*; Mantuano 17, 18*.

36. Anthurium pulverulentum Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1400-2550 m; terr. or ep., spathe green, spadix green or brownish: 28928*, 29415*, 30068*, 30303*, 30380*; G 69948*; Croat 50229, 50236, 72890, 82707; C. Espinoza 43*; Suin 348.

37. Anthurium resectum Sodiro
     Nanegal: Sodiro s.n. (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 81)

38. Anthurium rigidifolium Engl. (incl. A. lunatum Sodiro)
     Nanegal; scandent: Sodiro s.n.

39. Anthurium sarmentosum Engl.
     Sec. for., 1250-1500 m; terr. & ep. vine, spathe green, spadix dark red or purplish: 27034*, 27646*, 27900*, 31568.

40. Anthurium scandens (Aubl.) Engl. ssp. scandens
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; ep. vine, spathe green, spadix greenish to reddish: 27584, 27813*, 28117*, 30410*; Delgado 64; C. Espinoza 52; Hurtado 1438*; Suin 371*, 446.

41. Anthurium striatipes Sodiro (incl. A. subtrigonum Engl.)
     Prim. & sec. to upper mont. for., 1175-2500 m; terr. & ep., petioles c. 1 m long, spathe green, spadix yellow or reddish: 27147*, 27492*, 27817*, 27851*, 27890*, 27909*, 27945*, 28780*, 28807*, 29120*, 29246*, 29302*, 29477*, 29980*, 30215*, 30317*, 30422*, 30565*; C 39720, 39735; G 73217*; N 8651*; Harling & Andersson 11584; Hurtado 1421*; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n.

42. Anthurium subcoerulescens Engl.
     Nanegal; scandent: Sodiro 42.

43. Anthurium tenuifolium Engl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; usually ep., sometimes climbing, spathe mostly green, spadix green or creamy: 27815, 27824, 28324, 29454, 30052*, 30191*, 30434a*; Q 120.

44. Anthurium treleasei Sodiro
     Valle de Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., July 1907 "Crescit in silvis suband. occid. vulc. Pichincha" (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 84).

45. Anthurium tremulum Sodiro (incl. A. buglossum Sodiro, A. vexillare Sodiro)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2100 m; terr., climbing, spathe green, spadix brownish: 27150*, 27319*, 27562*, 28007*, 28075*, 28927*, 30146*; Leimbeck 303, 304*; Nanegal Valley: Sodiro s.n., May 1901 (type), Sodiro s.n., Dec. 1899 & June 1900, Sodiro s.n., July 1899 & June 1900 (syntypes of A. buglossum), Sodiro s.n., 4/1900 (syntype of A. vexillare).

46. Anthurium truncicolum Engl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1750 m; ep. or climbing, spathe green, spadix creamy: 27994*, 28176*, 28543*, 28730*; Asplund 17273 (det. M. Carlsen); Croat 38910, 61618; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 3/1900 (type of A. platylobum Sodiro); Nanegal Valley: Sodiro s.n. (type of A. subdeltoideum Engl.).

47. Anthurium umbraculum Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 2175-2550 m; terr., subscandent, lf. blades & petioles each c. 1 m or more, spathe white or green, spadix green: F 1302, 1371; Croat 50228, 72888; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n.; Sparre 16797*.

48. Anthurium versicolor Sodiro (incl. A. hylaeum Sodiro)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2050 m; climbing, spathe green, spadix green, white to yellow: 27039*, 27040*, 27552*, 27666*, 27944*, 31336*, 32373*; F 1023, 1032, 1083; Croat 38881, 38908, 50234, 61616, 72984, 82733; Holm-Nielsen 24434*; Hurtado 1415*.

49. Dieffenbachia daguensis Engl.
     Clearings in sec. for., 1200-1950 m; terr., spathe green below, yellowish above, sometimes reddish within, spadix creamy, with slight acrid fragrance: 28301, 28541*.

50. Dieffenbachia killipii Croat
     Sec. for., 00° 07' N 78° 38' W, 1200 m; terr.: Leimbeck 306*.

51. Monstera adansonii Schott
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; scandent: 28162*, 31343, 32912.

52. Monstera lechleriana Schott
     Sec. for., 1250-1630 m; ep.: 27321*, 28962*; G 69906*.

53. Philodendron acuminatissimum Engl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1750 m; climbing, spathe greenish to reddish or purplish below, whitish above, spadix white: 27559*, 27948*, 27999*, 28751*, 29282*, 31551, 31731; V 12280*; Leimbeck 300.

54. Philodendron dodsonii Croat & Grayum
     Sec. for., 1250-1650 m; ep. or climber, spathe reddish below, white above, spadix white: 27500*, 28781*, 30069*; Croat 38895.

55. Philodendron "fibrosum" Sodiro ex Croat (ined.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1950 m; hemiep., spathe greenish outside, maroon inside, spadix maroon: 27599*, 28074*, 31616*; G 73146*; Asplund 17247*; Croat 82732; Leimbeck 305*. [Not in CVPE.]

56. Philodendron gualeanum Engl.
     Nanegal & Gualea: Sodiro 13, Apr. 1900.

57. Philodendron inaequilaterum Liebm.
     Roadcut in sec. for., El Carmen to Marianitas, 1200-1250 m; terr/hemiep.: 28148*; Leimbeck 307*.

58. Philodendron musifolium Engl.
     Sec. for., 1700 m; ep.: 30372*; Croat 82736. [Type locality Gualea, east of Nanegal.]

59. Philodendron nanegalense Engl.
     Nanegal Valley; scandent: Sodiro 12f, 12/1901 [Known only from the type].

60. Philodendron oligospermum Engl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1150-2600 m; climbing vine, mostly ep., spathe white or pink, sometimes green at base, spadix white: 27320*, 27412*, 27560*, 27663*, 27773*, 27995*, 28011*, 28828*, 29125*, 29343*, 29346*, 30046*, 30176, 30405*, 31929, 32410; C 5899*; Croat 72891*; C. Espinoza 32; Schwerdtfeger 21115*; Nanegal: Sodiro, 1899.

61. Philodendron rhodoaxis G. S. Bunting ssp. lewisii Croat & Grayum
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; ep.: 30332, 31545 (both det. M. H. Grayum).

62. Philodendron sodiroanum Engl.
     Nanegal: Sodiro 47, Aug. 1874. [Not in CVPE, possibly a synonym of P. tenue K. Koch & Augustin.]

63. Philodendron subhastatum Engl. & K. Krause
     Prim. & sec. for., 1150-1750 m; climbing vine, terr. or ep., spathe reddish, spadix white: 27044*, 27853*, 27996*, 28396*, 28836*; Leimbeck 309*; between Nanegal & Gualea: Sodiro 12g.

64. Philodendron sulcatum K. Krause
     Rip. & sec. for., 1250-1725 m; climbing ep. vine, spathe dark green, spadix green and yellow: 27667, 31887 (both det. M. H. Grayum); Croat 72895.

65. Philodendron validinervium Engl.
     Nanegal & Gualea: Sodiro 11 (type).

66. Philodendron verrucosum L. Mathieu ex Schott
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2000 m; common climber or ep., spathe reddish inside, spadix white: 27177*, 27748, 27949*, 31608*; Z 117; Suin 398*.

67. Philodendron sp. 1
     Sec. for., Cerro Santa Lucia, 1400 m; ep.: 30338. [Possibly a form of P. dodsonii.]

68. Philodendron sp. 2
     Prim. for., 1900-2300 m; ep., scandent, petioles to 1.3 m, leaf blade 1 m, spathe dark red, spadix creamy, with peppery odor: 29228. [28006 and 28922 may also belong here.]

     [Rhodospatha dammeri Sodiro, collected at Gualea: Sodiro s.n., 1902 (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 86), of doubtful status.]

69. Rhodospatha densinervia Engl. & K. Krause
     Prim. for., 1550-1800 m; climber: 28198*.

70. Rhodospatha statutii Sodiro
     In "silv. subtrop. vall. Nanegal et Gualea"; Sodiro s.n.

71. Spathiphyllum grandifolium Engl.
     Sec. for., 1175 m; terr., spathe & spadix green: 28808*.

72. Stenospermation densiovulatum Engl. (incl. S. porteri Sodiro)
     Prim., rip. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; scandent, frs. green: 28196*, 31033*, 31155*; G 73203*.

73. Stenospermation longifolium Engl.
     Prim. for., 1975-2350 m; terr., spathe green, spadix white: 28712*, 30203*; Croat 50235; Nanegal/Gualea: Sodiro s.n., 1900.

74. Stenospermation longipetiolatum Engl.
     Sec. for., 1600-1700 m; terr., spathe & spadix whitish: 30433*, 32953.

75. Stenospermation mathewsii Schott var. stipitatum Engl.
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 2000-2500 m: C 32412* (det. only to species); Nanegal & vicinity, c. 1000-1600 m: Radrigan 17443*; Sodiro, Apr. 1900 (type).

76. Stenospermation sparrei Croat & J. Rodr.
     Upper mont. for., 2350-2700 m; terr., spathe green or brown, spadix white or yellow: 29452*, 29473*, 30562*. [Taxon status uncertain.]

77. Xanthosoma daguense Engl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2100 m; terr., spathe green below, yellowish above, spadix creamy: 30488*, 31618; Croat 82709. [Not in CVPE.]

78. Xanthosoma undipes (K. Koch & C. D. Bouché) K. Koch
     Prim. & sec. for., 1000-2000 m; common giant herb to 3 m, lvs. to 2 m, spathe & spadix whitish: 27241*, 27822*, 30218*, 31622; Croat 82721. [Commonly listed as X. sagittifolium (L.) Schott.] "Camacho"

ARECACEAE (9) (* det. H. Balslev; ** det. B. Bergmann; *** det. F. Borchsenius)
     Refs.: Balslev. H. 1990. AAU Rep. 25: 23-26. Balslev, H., & A. Barfod. 1987. Opera Bot. 92: 17-35. Svenning, J. C. & H. Balslev. 1998. Principes 42: 218-226.

1. Aiphanes chiribogensis Borchs. & Balslev
     Prim. for., slopes above Río Pichán, 1500-2000 m; trunk 1-3 m, fronds 1 m, infls. erect, purplish: 30169***; F 1178*.

2. Aiphanes erinacea (H. Karst.) H. Wendl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1800 m; trunk 2-8 m, infl. axes purplish, fls. white: 27113, 27262*; C 12415*; G 69925*; N 9794***.

3. Bactris setulosa H. Karst.
     Between Nanegalito & Nanegal, and Maquipucuna, 1200-1400 m; multistemmed, to 10 m: Balslev (sight observation). "Chonta fina"

4. Ceroxylon alpinum Bonpl. ex DC. ssp. ecuadorensis Galeano
     Between Nanegalito & Nanegal, and Maquipucuna: Balslev (sight observation). "Ramos", "Palma de cera", "Palma de ramo"

5. Chamaedorea linearis (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.
     Sec. for., less commonly in prim. for., 1300-1800 m; trunk 3-10 m, fronds 1.5-2 m, fls. creamy white, frs. orange: 27499*, 27501*, 31763, 31896; C 13072*. "Palmiche", "Chonte verde", "Coco"

6. Chamaedorea pinnatifrons (Jacq.) Oerst.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; trunk 2-10 m, frs. orange: 27675**, 28788*, 29285*, 30070***, 30165, 31606, 31692; C 5950*, 39722; F 1022, 1060, 1522*; N 9797*. "Molinillo"

7. Geonoma undata Klotzsch
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1700 m; fronds 2-2.5 m, infl. axes orange: 27391; Z 88. "Corozo"

8. Oenocarpus bataua Mart.
     Río Alambi between Nanegalito & Nanegal, 1200 m; over 20 m tall: Svenning & Balslev (sight observation).

9. Phytelephas aequatorialis Spruce
     Between Nanegalito & Nanegal: Balslev (sight observation). "Tagua"

10. Prestoea acuminata (Willd.) H. E. Moore var. acuminata
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2000 m; trunk 10-15 m, infl. axes brownish, fls. pink, frs. blackish: 27476*, 28774*; F 1078, 1104*, 1184*, 1551*; C 39767; G 69907, 73149*. "Pambil", "Palmito"

11. Socratea rostrata Burrett
     Between Nanegalito & Nanegal, and Maquipucuna, 1100-1300 m: Balslev (sight observation).

BROMELIACEAE (11) (* det. H. Luther; ** det. M. A. Spencer; *** det. M. Manzanares)
     Refs.: Gilmartin, A. J. 1972. The Bromeliaceae of Ecuador (Phaner. Monogr. 4). Luther, H. 1989. Phytologia 67: 312-330. Manzanares, J. 1998. J. Bromeliad Soc. 48: 108-120. 2001. Jewels of the Jungle: Bromeliaceae of Ecuador (Part 1 - Bromelioideae), 240 pp.

     [Aechmea involucrata André, near Gaulea: Sodiro 171/2, Oct. 1889.]

1. Aechmea magdalenae (André) André ex Baker var. magdalenae
     Nanegal, near Río Alambi, 1100 m; terr., lvs. to 3.5 m, fls. red: Manzanares 6655.

2. Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
     Nanegalito, 1200-1800 m; cult.: C 6854, 13062.

3. Ananas nanus (L. B. Sm.) L. B. Sm.
     Nanegal, 1000 m; cult.: Manzanares 7128. [Not in CVPE.]

4. Catopsis sessiliflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; ep., fls. white: 27398, 27541, 27543.

5. Greigia sodiroana Mez.
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro 171/1A, 1902 (type).

6. Guzmania amplectens L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1600-2000 m; terr. or ep., bracts red, sometimes with greenish tips: 30383*, 32961; Manzanares 7089 (cf.), 7715.

7. Guzmania angustifolia (Baker) Wittm.
     Between Calacalí & Los Bancos, 00° 06' N 78° 40' W, 1450 m; terr., bracts red-orange: Manzanares 6520; [34132, at 1300 m, may belong here].

8. Guzmania bracteosa (André) André ex Mez
     Sec. for., 2100-2600 m; ep., bracts purplish, fls. yellow: Manzanares 3070, 6402.

9. Guzmania coriostachya (Griseb.) Mez
     Sec. for., km 20, Calacalí-Nanegalito, 2000 m; ep. to 0.5 m, infls. to 0.3 m, bracts brownish, fls. white: Manzanares 5827(?).

10. Guzmania danielii L. B. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2660 m; ep., bracts red, fls. white: Manzanares 6391.

11. Guzmania cf. devansayana E. Morren
     Prim. for., 1750 m; ep.: 27767. "Huicundo"

12. Guzmania fusispica Mez & Sodiro
     Prim. & sec. for., 1150-2500 m; terr./ep. to 0.3 m, bracts reddish-orange to pinkish, fls. yellow: 31158*; Filskov 37134*; Manzanares 5980, 6429, 6436, 7641.

13. Guzmania gloriosa (André) André ex Mez
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; terr. or ep. to 0.65 m, bracts green with red or orange tips, fls. yellow: 29154***, 29501***; F 1292; C. Espinoza 22; Manzanares 5909, 6388, 6411.

14. Guzmania jaramilloi H. Luther
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2000 m; ep. to 2 m, bracts red, fls. yellow: 28340*, 31057*; C 5935*; N 8652*; T 606*; S. Espinoza 723* (also det as G. melinonis); Hurtado 1410*; Manzanares 6419, 6447, 6498, 6521, 7086; Suin 395 (aff.), 463.

15. Guzmania lehmanniana (Wittm.) Mez
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2600 m; terr. or ep. to 1.4 m, infls. to 0.5 m, bracts reddish-green (tertiary red), fls. white: 31065*; C. Espinoza 23; S. Espinoza 730*; Manzanares 6439, 7088; Suin 439.

16. Guzmania melinonis Regel
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2000 m; ep., bracts red, fls. yellow: 27558, 27695**, 28049; F 1116; S. Espinoza 723*** (last specimen also det. as G. jaramilloi).

17. Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; ep., bracts green with red tips, fls. white: 29978*.

18. Guzmania multiflora (André) André ex Mez
     Prim. for., 2600 m; ep. to 0.8 m, infl. reddish, fls. yellow to white: Manzanares 6399.

19. Guzmania musaica (Linden & André) Mez var. concolor L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep.: 27713**.

20. Guzmania patula Mez & Wercklé
     Sec. for., 1000-1700 m; ep. to 0.35 m, bracts yellow-green, fls. whitish to green: 27540, 27542, 27711**, 29272, 31121; Manzanares 6217, 6427, 6437, 6932.

21. Guzmania rhonhofiana Harms
     Sec. for., 1300-1325 m; terr., infl. axes red, bracts yellow: 31017*.

22. Guzmania roseiflora Rauh
     Upper mont. & sec. for., 1700-2500 m; terr. to 0.75 m, infl. green, fls. white: Manzanares 6424; (also cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 140).

23. Guzmania sanguinea var. comosa H. Luther
     Nanegal; cult.(?): Manazares 6948.

24. Guzmania squarrosa (Mez & Sodiro) L. B. Sm. & Pittendr.
     Prim. for., 2000-2600 m; ep., infls. red and green, tertiary bracts yellow, filled with mucilage: Manzanares 6403; Suin 399*.

25. Guzmania teuscheri L. B. Sm.
     Prim. for., 1390-1675 m; terr. or ep. to 1.2 m, bracts brownish, filled with mucilage, fls. yellow: 30365*; Manzanares 6430.

26. Guzmania variegata L. B. Sm.
     Prim. for., 1560-2600 m; ep., infls. to 1 m, bracts red with white tips, fls. white: 27112**, 27551**, 29185, 29197, 31677; F 1213, 1292***, 1415***; C. Espinoza 25; Manzanares 1201, 6412, 6413, 6438; Suin 438, 463; [29494, at 2700-2750 m on Montecristi, may belong here].

27. Guzmania wittmackii (André) André ex Mez
     Sec. for., 1250 m; ep., bracts magenta-tipped (secondary bracts white): 31345*.

28. Guzmania xanthobractea Gilmartin
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1900 m; terr. or ep. to 1.2 m, bracts red (sometimes with green tips), secondary bracts & fls. yellow: 27475**, 31064*, 31117* [atypical], 31919; N 9799*; Manzanares 6423, 6441; Till 13029.

29. Mezobromelia bicolor L. B. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2600-2690 m; terr. or ep. to 0.6 m, bracts red or greenish, fls. white: Manzanares 6387, 6394, 6400.

30. Mezobromelia capituligera (Griseb.) J. R. Grant
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-2340 m; terr./ep. to 0.7 m, bracts red distally, filled with mucilage, fls. white: 30513*** (also det. as M. pleiosticha); Manzanares 6414, 6434; Till 13015.

31. Mezobromelia lyman-smithii Rauh & Barthlott
     Banks, east of Nanegalito, 1600-2200 m; terr. or ep., infls. to 3.4 m, bracts & fls. yellow: F 1485***; Dodson et al. 6981***; Manzanares 7713; Till 13024.

32. Mezobromelia pleiosticha (Griseb.) Utley & H. Luther
     Prim. for., 1250-2100 m; terr. or ep., bracts red with greenish tip, filled with mucilage; fls. white: 30387*, 30503*, 30513* (also det. as M. capituligera), 31138*; Manzanares 5897, 6216.

     [Pepinia alborubra (Baker) G. S. Varad. & Gilmartin, collected just south of flora boundary: Manzanares 6253, may be found within our limits.]

33. Pitcairnia cf. bakeri (André) André ex Mez
     Prim. for., 2030 m; terr., 1.3 m: 30209.

34. Pitcairnia commixta L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; terr. to 1.9 m, infls. & fls. red, frs. reddish: 31125*; Manzanares 6433.

35. Pitcairnia fusca H. Luther
     Upper mont. for., 2050-2750 m; terr. to 1.8 m, bracts brownish, fls. white or pale yellow: 30579; H 29549*; Manzanares 6410, 6416; Nanegalito, 1800-2050 m: Manzanares 7716; Till 13018.

36. Pitcairnia lehmannii Baker
     Banks in sec. for., 1200-1400 m; terr., lvs. nearly 2 m, infls. 1.5 m, fls. scarlet: 29265, 32382.

37. Pitcairnia nigra (Carrière) André
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2100 m; ep. to 0.45 m, bracts reddish to bright red, fls. yellow to dark violet: 27498**, 28739***, 28882, 30029, 30345, 31901; F 1538; Manzanares 6422, 6425, 6440, 7087.

38. Pitcairnia pungens Kunth
     Prim. for., between Calacalí and Nanegalito, 2630 m; terr., infls. simple, red: Manzanares 6214; Till 13013. [May be extralimital.]

39. Pitcairnia sceptrigera Mez
     Sec. for., Marianitas to Montecristi, 1200-2700 m; terr., lvs. & spikes c. 2 m, fls. yellow: 28316; K 31992.

40. Pitcairnia sodiroi Mez
     Prim., sec. & upper mont. for., 1750-2700 m; terr. or ep. to 0.7 m, infls. & fls. orange: 28659, 28879, 28888, 29191, 29424, 30576*, 32417***; C 7176*; F 1271; Manzanares 6384, 6385, 6401; Nicolalde 362; Suin 24, 329, 349, 379, 425.

41. Racinaea adpressa (André) J. R. Grant subsp. orthiantha (Standl.) J. R. Grant
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1560-2340 m; ep., bracts green, fls. white: Manzanares 6417, 6444.

42. Racinaea elegans (L. B. Sm.) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2500-2750 m; basket ep. to 1.5 m across, infls. 1 m, brownish, fls. yellow: 29478, 30546*, 31509; Manzanares 6386, 6392.

43. Racinaea homostachya (André) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     El Pahuma, 2000-2600 m; ep., lvs. yellow, bracts brown, fls. clear green: C. Espinoza 24; Suin 373*, 442*.

44. Racinaea monticola (Mez & Sodiro) M.A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2470-2680 m; ep., bracts brownish, infls. green, fls. white: F 1376*; Manzanares 6390, 6393; [Dodson 10766* is perhaps within the area].

45. Racinaea quadripinnata (Mez & Sodiro) M.A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     Upper mont. for., 2690 m; terr. or ep., bracts brownish, fls. white: Manzanares 6382.

46. Racinaea ropalocarpa (André) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1900-2600 m; ep., infls. yellow: 31644; C. Espinoza 26, 49*** (as Tillandsia ropalocarpa André).

47. Racinaea tandapiana (H. Luther) M. A. Spencer & L. B. Sm.
     Prim. for., 1450-2470 m; ep., bracts brownish, fls. whitish: Manzanares 6215, 6405, 7093; Till 13026.

48. Racinaea tetrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) L. B. Sm. & M. A. Spencer var. miniata (André) L. B. Sm. & M. A. Spencer
     Upper mont. for., 2660-2750 m; ep., bracts orange, fls. yellow: 30522*; Manzanares 6389 (to species only), 6396.

49. Tillandsia cf. buseri Mez
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1800-1850 m; terr., bracts red, secondary bracts yellow: 31943.

50. Tillandsia complanata Benth.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1560-2680 m; ep., bracts red, fls. violet: 30102*, 30175*; C 5936*; F 1212*; Suin 374*, 400*; Manzanares 6395, 6415, 6443, 6445; Till 13025. "Hacienda" "Huicundo"

51. Tillandsia cornuta Mez & Sodiro
     In shrubs along Rio Umachaca, 1300 m; ep: Manzanares 6431.

52. Tillandsia emergens Mez & Sodiro
     2690 m; ep. to 0.7 m, infls. red, fls. violet: Manzanares 6449.

53. Tillandsia fendleri Griseb.
     Sec. for., near Nanegal, 1100-1990(?) m; ep.: Manzanares 6218; Till 13022.

54. Tillandsia maculata Ruiz & Pav.
     Remnants of upper mont. for., 2690 m; ep. to 1.5 m, infls. red, fls. violet: Manzanares 6407.

55. Tillandsia pretiosa Mez
     Sec. for., 1300-1700 m; ep., bracts pink or orangish, fls. purple: 30063*, 31902; Manzanares 6428, 6432.

56. Tillandsia sceptriformis Mez & Sodiro
     Prim. for., 2690 m; ep. to 1.7 m, bracts red with yellow tips, fls. violet: Manzanares 6383.

57. Tillandsia spathacea Mez & Sodiro
     Sec. for., 2690 m; ep., fls. green with violet margins: Manzanares 6448.

58. Tillandsia superba Mez
     Sec. & upper mont. for., 1900-2690 m; ep., to 1.6 m, infls. red, fls. violet: Dodson 10765; Manzanares 6381, 6397, 6409; Till 13027a.

59. Tillandsia truncata L. B. Sm.
     Prim. for., 1560-2690 m; ep. to 0.5 m, bracts red, fls. white or green: 30193*; C 5937*; F 1194, 1201, 1477**; Manzanares 6398, 6408, 6442.

60. Tillandsia venusta Mez & Wercklé
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep.: 28181.

61. Vriesea cylindrica L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep. to 0.6 m: Manzanares 6435.

62. Vriesea rubrobracteata Rauh
     Nanegalito, 1840 m; infls. reddish: Manzanares 7090. [Not in CVPE.]

63. Vriesea tequendamae (André) L. B. Sm.
     Rip. for., 2100 m; ep., infls. orange, fls. green-violet: Manzanares 6404.

64. Werauhia paupera (Mez & Sodiro) J. R. Grant
     Prim. for., 1560 m; ep. to 0.45 m, fls. green: Manzanares 6446.

CANNACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Maas, P. J. M., & H. Maas. 1988. Fl. Ecuador 32: 1-9.

1. Canna jaegeriana Urb.
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; herb to 3 m, fls. yellow-orange, frs. yellowish-green with purple indumentum: 27724, 31188, 31849.

COMMELINACEAE (5) (* det. R. Faden)
     Ref.: Macbride, J. F. 1936. Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. 13(1): 592-608.

1. Callisia gracilis (Kunth) D. R. Hunt
     Sec. for., clearings, 1250-2000 m; fls. white: 27657, 27946*; Z 70, 179; Delgado 17*.

2. Commelina diffusa Burm. f.
     Sec. for., 1500 m; spreading herb, fls. blue: Z 56. "Suelda"

3. Commelina obliqua Vahl
     Sec. for., 1150-1500 m; fls. blue: 27416, 27887*, 28128*, 28803*; Z 62, 142. "Cacharillo"

4. Elasis hirsuta (Kunth) D. R. Hunt
     Upper mont. sec. for., 2750 m; common, fls. pink: 31512; K 31976.

5. Tradescantia zanonia (L.) Sw. (= Campelia zanonia (L.) Kunth)
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; common, to 1.5 m, fls. white: 27308, 27889, 29329, 30290, 32799, 32930; Delgado 27*; Hurtado 1444 (det. P. J. M. Maas); Suin 331*.

6. Tripogandra serrulata (Vahl) Handlos
     Sec. for., 1250-1725 m; weed with white fls.: 27191*, 27891*, 27924*, 31927, 32931; Z 204.

COSTACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Maas, P. J. M. 1976. Fl. Ecuador 6: 1-49.

1. Costus guanaiensis Rusby
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; giant herb to 4 m, bracts red, fls. yellowish-white: 27624, 31272.

2. Costus laevis Ruiz & Pav.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; bracts red, fls. striped red & yellow: 27437, 28213A, 28313, 29996. "Caña agria"

3. Costus pulverulentus C. Presl
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; 1-5 m, bracts red: 27285, 27517, 27588, 28289, 28837.

CYCLANTHACEAE (4) (* det. R. Eriksson)
     Ref.: Harling, G. 1973. Fl. Ecuador 1: 1-48.

1. Asplundia nonoensis Harling
     Sec. for., Los Puentes, 1400-1500 m: Asplund 17290 (type).

2. Asplundia stenophylla (Standl.) Harling
     Prim. for., 1550-2000 m; hemiep. climber, infls. green: C 39728; F 1025; G 73154 (det. B. Hammel); Suin 328, 397. [Not in CVPE.]

3. Asplundia utilis (Oerst.) Harling
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; terr., uncommon: 29303 (det. B. Hammel).

4. Asplundia sp. 1 (subg. Choanopsis)
     Prim. for., 1700-1800 m; ep., infls. green: 28210*.

5. Asplundia sp. 2 (subg. Asplundia)
     Sec. for., 1700 m; ep.: 30071*.

     [Additional specimens of Asplundia remain unidentified.]

6. Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; lvs. 1.5-2 m: 27899, 31903; Z 103.

7. Ludovia bierhorstii G. Wilder
     Sec. for., 1250-1500 m; hemiep. climber, bracts & spikes yellow: 28273*, 31552.

8. Sphaeradenia hamata Harling
     Prim. for., 1550-2600 m; ep. or terr., sometimes climbing, fls. & frs. white: 27111*, 27135*, 27477*, 27549*, 27803*, 28214*, 28764*, 31676, 31891; G 73151, 73251 (both det. M. Merello); C. Espinoza 29 (aff.).

9. Sphaeradenia horrida (Harling) Harling
     Prim. for., 1400-2750 m; ep. or terr., infl. red.: 28955*, 29202*, 29447*, 30521, 31053, 31317; F 1200, 1303; K 31977; L 13672*; C. Espinoza 27 (cf.).

CYPERACEAE (9) (* det. G. Davidse; ** det. T. Reznicek; *** det. K. Camelbeke)
     Refs.: Clarke, C. B. 1905. Bot. Jahrb. 34, Beibl. 78: 5. Tucker, G. C. 1983. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 2: 1-85 [Cyperus]. 1987. J. Arnold Arb. 68: 361-445.

1. Carex jamesonii Boott
     Prim. for., along stream, Quebrada Santa Rosa, 2000 m: 31236**, 32420.

2. Carex polystachya Sw. ex Wahlenb.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-2500 m: 31149**; K 31805; L 13662.

3. Carex sodiroi Kük.
     Sec. for., 4 km NW of Nanegalito, "Crescit in silvis ad pagum Gualea", 1500-1600 m: Sodiro 199/69, Oct 1886 (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 175).

4. Carex sp. 1
     Banks, 1300 m: K 32118.

5. Cyperus aggregatus (Willd.) Endl. (incl. Cyperus tenuis Sw.)
     Sec. for. & rocky areas, 1200-2000 m: 28280, 29067, 32393; Z 163; Holm-Nielsen 16155***.

6. Cyperus chalaranthus J. Presl & C. Presl
     Sec. for., scrub, roadsides, 1200-1400 m: 27418, 28108***, 28279, 29066; Z 11; Filskov 37087***.

7. Cyperus diffusus Vahl
     Fields, 1200-1400 m: Filskov 37089 (det. S. Laegaard).

8. Cyperus hermaphroditus (Jacq.) Standl.
     Pastures & along streams, 1400-1920 m: 30114, 32398; Z 222.

9. Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz.
     Fields & roadsides, 1200-1350 m: 27161, 27424; Z 171. "Zacate estrella", "Cabezona"

10. Cyperus mutisii (Kunth) Andersson
     Fields, 1250-1300 m: 28151***.

11. Cyperus odoratus L.
     Ditches, 1600 m: 32795; Z 57; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 30.

12. Cyperus prolixus Kunth
     Moist fields between Nanegal & Nanegalito, 1200-1300 m; stems to 1.5 m: 28899*.

13. Cyperus simplex Kunth
     Ditches, 1700-1900 m: 31637; Laegaard 53111.

14. Eleocharis elegans (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1250-2100 m: 27162, 27165, 30489, 31349, 33608; C 13125.

15. Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult.
     Wet banks, 1250 m; diminutive annual: 31569.

16. Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m: 27934***.

17. Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir.) Urb.
     Fields & sec. for., 1250-1300 m: 28131 (det. J. Bruhl).

18. Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl
     Roadsides, 1200-1250 m: 27164; Z 157.

19. Kyllinga pumila Michx.
     Sec. for., 1250-1350 m: 27381, 27425; Z 58.

20. Pycreus bipartitus (Torr.) C. B. Clarke
     Fields in sec. for., 1250 m: 28140***.

21. Pycreus niger (Riuz & Pav.) Cufod.
     Bed of Río Pichán, 1900 m: 32399.

22. Rhynchospora polyphylla Vahl
     Sec. for., 1250-2750 m: 27441**, 27660, 28719**, 30356*, 31502.

23. Rhynchospora polystachys (Turrill) H. Pfeiffer
     Sec. for. & riversides, 1250-1400 m: 27941*; Laegaard 53108***.

24. Rhynchospora puberula (Boeck.) L. B. Sm. (= Pleurostachys puberula Boeck.)
     Sec. for., 1250-1850 m: 27936**, 28852**, 30051.

25. Rhynchospora radicans (Schltdl. & Cham.) H. Pfeiffer
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m: 27155.

26. Rhynchospora ruiziana Boeck.
     Rip. for., 2000 m: 31235**, 32423; Sodiro 43e.

27. Rhynchospora vulcani Boeck.
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1500-2000 m: 28029**.

28. Rhynchospora watsonii (Britton) Davidse
     Banks, 1250-1550 m: 31781, 32355.

29. Rhynchospora sp. 1.
     Prim. for., 2750 m; infls. to 1.5 m: H 29542.

     [Scleria mexicana (Liebm.) Boeck., cited by Clarke (as Scleria sororia Kunth) on the basis of Sodiro 199/53 from Nanegal Valley & Río Pilatón, requires confirmation.]

30. Scleria microcarpa Nees ex Kunth
     Nanegal Valley: Sodiro 199/55.

31. Uncinia hamata (Sw.) Urb.
     Prim. for., 1800-2215 m: 29129, 29411; C 13068; Cedeño 16. "Cortadira", "Pega-pega"

DIOSCOREACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Ayala F., F. 1981. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 68: 125-131.

1. Dioscorea cf. coriacea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
     Sec. for., 1150 m; vine with reddish fls.: 29075.

2. Dioscorea pilosiuscula Bertero ex Spreng.
     Sec. for., 1900-2200 m; vine with dull purple fls.: Zak & Jaramillo 3253 (det. O. Tellez).

3. Dioscorea polygonoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
     Sec. for., 1800-2000 m; vine, fls. greenish: 31538, 31942.

4. Dioscorea cf. syringifolia Kunth & Schomb. ex Schomb.
     Sec. for., 1300-1500 m; vine with purplish fls.: 27910. [Not in CVPE.]

5. Dioscorea sp. 1
     Prim. for., 2000-2375 m; vine: 29462.

HAEMODORACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Maas, P. & H. 2003. Fl. Ecuador 71: 111-114.

1. Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; fls. whitish, frs. orange: 27373, 28165.

HELICONIACEAE (1) (* det. W. J. Kress; ** det. L. Andersson)
     Refs.: Andersson, L. 1985. Fl. Ecuador 22: 1-86. 1985, 1992. Opera Bot. 82: 1-123; 111: 1-98.

1. Heliconia burleana Abalo & G. L. Morales
     Prim. for., 1700-2050 m; stem 1.5 m, lvs. to 2.5 m, infls. erect, bracts red, ovary greenish or yellow, perianth yellow or green: 27561*, 27854*, 30219*, 30373, 30378, 31223*; Morales & Abalo 294 (type).

2. Heliconia griggsiana L. B. Sm.
     Sec. for., 1200-1700 m; to 8 m, lvs. 1.5 m, infls. pendent, bracts red, fls. yellow, frs. orange: 27623*, 29046*; C 13071*; Filskov 37135**; Holm-Nielsen 24454**.

3. Heliconia impudica Abalo & G. L. Morales
     Sec. for., 1600-2000 m; to 2 m high, infls. erect, bracts red or red & yellow, fls. yellow or orange: 27102*, 27622*, 28063*, 28200*; C 5934*; Delgado 40**. "Platanillo"

4. Heliconia pardoi Abalo & G. L. Morales
     Rip. sec. for., 1400 m; 3 m high, infls. erect, fls. yellow, frs. green: 27273*.

5. Heliconia sclerotricha Abalo & G. L. Morales
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; to 2 m high, infls. pendent, bracts red, fls. yellow: 27375*, 27466.

6. Heliconia virginalis Abalo & G. L. Morales
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1700 m; to 3.5 m, lvs. 1 m, infls. erect, bracts red, fls. white, frs. yellow turning blue: 27173*, 27414*, 27488*, 27564*, 27742*, 27788*, 29300*, 30272, 30295, 31741.

HYPOXIDACEAE (1)

1. Hypoxis decumbens L.
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; fls. yellow: 27386, 27799; Z 194; Filskov 37063(?).

IRIDACEAE (1)

1. Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav.
     Open areas, 1250-1350 m; fls. lavender: 27371, 27410, 28110.

JUNCACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Balslev, H. 1979. Fl. Ecuador 11: 1-45.

1. Juncus tenuis Willd.
     Open areas, 1300-2300 m: 28030, 31636, 32820; Acosta Solís 19150.

2. Juncus imbricatus Laharpe
     El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 28.

MARANTACEAE (3) (* det. H. Kennedy)
     Ref.: Kennedy, H., L. Andersson & M. Hagberg. 1988. Fl. Ecuador 32: 11-191.

1. Calathea ischnosiphonoides H. Kenn.
     Prim. for., 1500-1800 m; to 3 m, bracts brownish, fls. white or pink: 27331, 28204*, 31700; N 9801*.

2. Calathea plurispicata H. Kenn.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; lvs. to 4 m, infls. to 2.5 m: 29325*.

3. Calathea selbyana H. Kenn.
     Sec. for., 1350-1400 m; plants 1.5 m, bracts green: 30274*.

4. Pleiostachya pruinosa (Regel) K. Schum.
     Sec. for., 1100 m; lvs. 1.5 m, fls. blue: 29266*.

5. Stromanthe stromanthoides (J. F. Macbr.) L. Andersson
     Sec. for., 1200-1600 m; lvs. to 2 m, bracts orange, fls. whitish: 27491*, 29327*, 31021, 31091.

     [Musaceae, Musa acuminata Colla, at 1200 m; cult.: Filskov 37136 (det. J. Kress).]

ORCHIDACEAE (82) Reviewed and augmented by Alexander Reynolds [AR] (* det. C. Dodson; ** det. J. Beckner; *** det. L. Endara; others as indicated.)
Taxa may be vouchered/illustrated by photos (provided by A. Reynolds and collaborators); these can be seen by selecting their hyperlinked names.

     Refs.: Garay, L. 1978. Fl. Ecuador 9: 1-304. Dodson, C. H. & P. M. Dodson. 1978-1984. Icones Plantarum Tropicarum, Ecuador vols. 1-5, 10; series 2, vols. 5, 6, 1989. Luer, C. A. 1986. Missouri Bot. Gard. Syst. Monogr. 20: 1-109. Dodson, C.H. & R. Escobar. 1996-2002. Orquideas Nativas del Ecuador, vols. 1-3. Dodson, C. H. et al. 2003. Orchids of Ecuador. Unpublished manuscript. Endara, L. & L. Jost. 2000. Orchidaceae. in Libro rojo de las plantas endemicas del Ecuador. Valencia, R., N. Pitman,  S. Leon-Yañez & P. Jorgensen, (eds.) Herbario QCA, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito. Jorgenson, P. M. & S. Leon-Yañez (eds.) 1999. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Missouri Bot. Gard. Press. Reynolds, A. 2004. Orchids of Maquipucuna. Rapid Color Guide 166; Field Museum, Chicago.

     [A large number of orchids have been collected by Dodson, Luer, and others, often along the road between Nono & Tandayapa, or along the road running west from Calacalí, with most of these lying outside our boundaries; those within approximately 1' are listed in brackets. For a few taxa, after the collections made within the floristic area, we list selected collections made just beyond the floristic area.]

1. Ackermania cornuta (Garay) Dodson & R. Escobar
     Prim. for., Sendero Tranquilo, Río Umachaca, 1200-2000 m; ep., lvs. grayish-green, fls. cream-yellow with red markings, lip apically pointed: AR 21, alcohol voucher, photo vouchers.

2. Ada elegantula (Rchb. f.) N. H. Williams
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1600 m; ep., fls. small, greenish with pink spots on lip: 32921 (cf., det. E. A. Christenson); AR photo voucher; Hirtz 1287 (photo).

3. Ada glumacea (Lindl.) N. H. Williams
     Prim. for., Tandayapa, 1600-1800 m; ep.: Dodson 18794; Hirtz 1319.

4. Ada ocanensis (Lindl.) N. H. Williams
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Tandayapa, prim. for., 2000-2200 m; ep.: Dodson 1097; Luer 4711* [these two collections may be extralimital].

5. Altensteinia fimbriata Kunth
     Calacalí to Nanegalito, 2400 m; terr.: AR photo voucher; K 1015, 1496.

6. Altensteinia virescens Lindl.
     Roadside embankments, Calacalí-Nanegalito, 2200-2500 m; terr., fls. greenish yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

7. Anguloa virginalis Linden ex B. S. Williams
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; fls. fleshy pink or white with maroon spots, strongly fragrant: AR (field det.).

8. Barbosella cucullata (Lindl.) Schltr.
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; ep.: Suin 459; [Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: Dodson 10783].

     [Barbosella sp. 1, Río Alambi, 2250 m: Molau & Ohman 1391.] 

9. Brachionidium sp.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2750 m; terr., perianth purplish & green: 30558*.

10. Brachtia andina Rchb. f.
     Upper mont. for., 1800-2470 m; ep., fls. yellow: AR photo voucher; F 1380, 1479; P 3578; Croat 72873 (det. E. A. Christenson); Dalström 1604.

11. Brassia arcuigera Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1200-1350 m; ep., fls. pale greenish mottled with brown: 31025; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

12. Brassia sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1250 m; ep., fls. pale yellow: 31008.

13. Campylocentrum polystachyum (Lindl.) Rolfe
     1000-2500 m; ep., infl. extending past lvs., fls. white: AR photo voucher.

14. Chondrorhyncha embreei Dodson & Neudecker
     Sec. for., 1200-2000 m; ep., fls. greenish-white with burgundy markings: 27648*,  27649*, 28842*, 30308, 31173; AR photo voucher; C 5933*.

15. Chondrorhyncha thienii (Dodson) Dodson
     Prim. for., 2000 m; ep., fls. pale yellow, column purple-spotted: 28723*.

16. Cleistes sp.
     Sec. for., 1725 m; terr., fls. orange: 31925.

17. Comparettia falcata Poepp. & Endl.
     Sec. for., 1250-1900 m; ep., fls. magenta: 31001; AR photo voucher; C 13045; Suin 501*.

18. Cranichis antioquiensis Schltr.
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; terr., fls. green and white: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; [Nono-Nanegal, 2200 m; terr.: Sparre 16815].

19. Cranichis ciliata (Kunth) Kunth
     Prim. for., Tandayapa, 2320 m; terr.: AR photo voucher; Luer 7305 [may be extralimital].

20. Cranichis fertilis (F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr.
     Banks in sec. for., 1250-1800 m; terr., fls. white: 27166*, 27636*; AR photo voucher; V 12265; Harling & Andersson 11623; Todzia & Grimes 2479.

21. Cranichis sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; terr., fls. whitish: 27783, 28840; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

22. Cranichis sp. 2
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; terr., fls. red: AR photo voucher.

23. Crossoglossa caulescens (Lindl.) Dodson
     Nanegal, 1500 m; terr.: Jameson s.n., 1855.

24. Crossoglossa nanegalensis Dodson
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1700 m; terr., fls. yellow-green: Hirtz 2210* (type).

25. Crossoglossa tipuliodes (Lindl.) Dodson
     Sec. for., Nanegal, 1200-1300 m; terr.: Harling & Andersson 11599*.

26. Cryptocentrum latifolium Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1300-1550 m; ep. on mossy trunks, lvs. 1.5 cm wide, fls. yellow-green: 31958; AR 4, alcohol voucher, photo vouchers.

27. Cryptocentrum lehmannii (Rchb. f.) Garay
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1100-2000, 2500-3000(?) m; ep., lvs. <1 cm wide, fls. yellow-green: AR 5, alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

28. Cryptocentrum sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1400 m; ep., lvs. < 1 cm wide, fls. yellow-green, smallest of the three species, base of petals extend past base of sepals: AR 13, alcohol voucher.

29. Cyclopogon inaequilaterus (Poepp. & Endl.) Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1200-1350 m; terr., fls. yellowish-green: 27780*, 28109*, 28169*.

30. Cyclopogon ovalifolium C. Presl
     Sec. for., 1300 m; terr., fls. white: 28783*.

     [Cyclopogon pelagalloanus Dodson, from its type locality at 2800 m near Loma Pelagallo: Hirtz 2618, is 1' E of the area boundary.]

31. Cyclopogon sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1300 m; terr., roots fleshy, fls. green with white lip: 27616; AR photo voucher.

32. Cyclopogon sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1300 m; terr., roots fleshy, fls. green with pink lip: 27617; AR photo voucher.

     [Two additional collections of Cyclopogon, 28725 and 29994, remain unidentified.]

33. Cyrtochiloides riopalenqueana (Dodson) N. H. Williams & M. W. Chase
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., yellow-red with white lip: AR photo voucher. [In CVPE as Oncidium riopalenqueanum Dodson.]

34. Cyrtochilum cimiciferum (Rchb. f.) Dalström
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 1800-2400 m; ep., long infl., fls. yellow-brown: AR photo voucher; Suin 430; [Calacalí-Nieblí, 2000 m: Hirtz 1482] (last two det. S. Dalström).

35. Cyrtochilum flexuosum Kunth (incl. Oncidium hartwegii Lindl.)
     Prim. for., 2050-2275 m; ep., fls. brown and yellow: 28934*, 29213; AR photo voucher.

     [Cyrtochilum geniculatum Königer, Yunguilla-Sta. Lucia trail: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Nono-Nanegal, sec. for., 2200 m; ep., fls. red with pink edges: Hirtz 1041; La Liberia, 2200 m: Hirtz 1288 (det. S. Dalström).]

36. Cyrtochilum macranthum (Lindl.) Kraenzl.
     Sec. for., 1900 m; terr., fls. large, orange, yellow and purple: 30591, 30610; El Pahuma, 2400 m; ep.: Suin 428 (det. S. Dalström). [In CVPE as Oncidium macranthum Lindl.]

37. Cyrtochilum meirax (Rchb. f.) Dalström
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2100 m; ep., fls. dull yellow with brown spots: 27447 ex p.*, 27450*, 28132*, 28951*, 29308*, 30371*, 32977 (det. E. A. Christenson); AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; T 177*; Filskov 37080 (det. S. Dalström), 37131 (det. J. Ackerman). [In CVPE as Oncidium meirax Rchb. f.]

38. Cyrtochilum orthotis (Rchb. f.) Kraenzl.
     Sec. for., 1300-1600 m; ep., fls. yellow with brown spots: 27937*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 16510. [In CVPE as Oncidium orthotis Rchb. f.]

39. Cyrtochilum ramosissimum (Lindl.) Dalström
     Nanegal; ep.: Sodiro 112. [In CVPE as Odontoglossum ramosissimum Lindl.]

40. Cyrtochilum serratum (Lindl.) Kraenzl.
     Prim. & sec. for. & clearings, 1500-2225 m; common, ep. or terr., infl. to 4 m, twining or clambering, fls. yellow & brown: 27960*, 28058*, 28891*, 29402, 30100*, 30590; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; F 1192; Holmgren 851; Holm-Nielsen 24484*; Suin 367 (det. S. Dalstrom), 441(?); [Dodson & Thien 1102]. "Margarita" [In CVPE as Oncidium serratum Lindl.]

41. Cyrtochilum williamsianum (Dodson) Dalström
     Sec. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1500 m; ep., fls. pink with pink callus: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher. [In CVPE as Oncidium williamsianum Dodson.]

42. Cyrtochilum sp. 1
     Roadside embankment, Utopia, 1800 m; ep./terr., fls. yellow: AR photo voucher.

43. Cyrtochilum sp. 2
     Utopia, Río Alambi, 2000 m; fls. reddish brown with yellow: AR photo voucher.

44. Dichaea longa Schltr.
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1500 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; Dodson 16506.

45. Dichaea morrisii Fawc. & Rendle
     Sec. for., 1500-2200 m; ep.: 28020*, 28761*; AR photo voucher; Holm-Nielsen 24451*; Sparre 17045.

46. Dichaea sodiroi Schltr. (incl. Dichaea pendula (Aubl.) Cogn. & Dichaea chasei Dodson)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2100 m; ep., fls. yellow with purplish lip: 27453*, 28874*, 28900*, 33594; AR photo voucher; C 5903*; Luer s.n., 1979; Suin 391; [Calacalí-Nieblí, 2200 m: Hirtz 1496].

47. Dichaea sp. 1
     Prim. & sec. for., 1300-1775 m; ep.: 27579, 29273, 29579, 30391; AR alcohol voucher.

     [Dracula dodsonii (Luer) Luer, Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: Dodson 10792, 16501.]

48. Dracula felix (Luer) Luer
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1000-2500 m; ep., fls. white with purple: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

49. Dracula navarroörum Luer & Hirtz
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, Tandayapa, 1600-1800 m; ep.: Dalström 1661; Hirtz 4854 (type); Luer 15259.

50. Dracula sodiroi (Schltr.) Luer
     Sec. for., 1750-2400 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; F 1199*; Suin 427; [Dodson 15972].

51. Dracula vespertilio (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Prim. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., fls. yellow, spotted with purple, lip white with pink spots: AR photo voucher (det. S. Dalström).

52. Dracula wallisii (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Prim. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., fls. whitish, spotted brown or purple, lip white, mobile: AR photo voucher (det. S. Dalström). [Taxon listed in CVPE as a misidentification.]

53. Dressleria fragrans Dodson
     Sec. for. & orchid garden, 1100-1250 m; ep., fls. greenish, fleshy, fragrant: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

54. Dryadella simula (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Near Utopia, 2000 m; ep., fls. greenish with purple markings: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

55. Dryadella sp. 1
     Prim. for., 2000 m; ep., fls. purplish: 31843.

56. Elleanthus aristatus Garay
     Cerro Negro, 1800 m; ep., fls. orange: 30449*.

57. Elleanthus aurantiacus (Lindl.) Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 2000-2500 m; ep./terr.: K 1521; Suin 494*.

58. Elleanthus capitatus (Poepp. & Endl.) Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; ep./terr., stems to 1 m: 27534*, 27611*, 29292, 31547; AR photo vouchers; C 5905*; Bohlin 1100; Suin 401; [L 11327].

59. Elleanthus discolor (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep./terr., bracts yellowish: 27708*; AR photo voucher.

60. Elleanthus formosus Garay
     Banks, 1200-3000 m; terr., fls. brick orange: 27301*; AR photo voucher.

61. Elleanthus fractiflexus Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1400-1550 m; terr., fls. white: AR photo voucher; C 39783; Dodson 6982; Sodiro 35 (type).

62. Elleanthus gastroglottis Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1800-2500 m; ep./terr., perianth purple: C 5939*; Hurtado 1425*; Suin 493; [Luer 2363].

63. Elleanthus graminifolius (Barb. Rodr.) Lojtnant
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; ep./terr.: 27531*, 28966*; AR photo voucher.

64. Elleanthus linifolius C. Presl
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; ep./terr.: 28967*.

     [Elleanthus myrosmatis (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f., at Yunguilla, 2580 m: AR photo voucher; Dodson et al. 16499.]

65. Elleanthus oliganthus (Poepp. & Endl.) Rchb. f. ?
     1000-2700 m; ep./terr., fls. orange-red: AR photo voucher. [Possibly E. aurantiacus.]

66. Elleanthus petrogeiton Schltr.
     Prim. for., Yunguilla-Sta. Lucia, 2500 m; terr., fls. white with purple: AR photo voucher; K 1538; Alaspungo-Gualea, 1500 m: Holmgren 640. [May be extralimital.]

67. Elleanthus robustus (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1300-1800 m; ep. or terr., stems to 1 m: 27447 ex p.*, 31565(?), 31917; AR photo voucher; Alvarado 409.

68. Elleanthus smithii Schltr.
     Banks, 1200-2000 m; terr., fls. orange, foetid: 28161*; AR photo voucher; Dodson & Thien 1107, Dodson 16505; Harling & Andersson 11613.

69. Elleanthus vernicosus Garay
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 2000 m; terr.: AR photo voucher; Plowman & Davis 4446*.

70. Elleanthus sp. 1
     Sec. for. & banks, 1550-1600 m; fls. white or magenta: 31119, 31122.

71. Elleanthus sp. 2
     Sec. for., Sendero del Río, 1300 m; ep., fls. white, solitary from terminal cone: AR photo voucher.

72. Elleanthus sp. 3
     Sec. for., orchid garden, 1250 m; terr., lvs. purplish below, fls. orange, in terminal cone: AR photo voucher.

73. Epibator hirtzii (Luer) Luer
     Sec. for., 1600-1800 m; ep., fls. yellow: AR photo voucher; Hirtz 2166; Luer 13324.

74. Epidendrum arachnoglossum Rchb. f. ex André
     Sec. scrub, above Río Pichán, 2050 m; terr., fls. white, lip with yellow spots: 30099*.

75. Epidendrum arbusculum Lindl., vel aff.
     Prim. for., 1950-2000 m; ep., fls. green: 28715*; AR photo voucher.

76. Epidendrum aristatum Ackerman & Montalvo
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2250 m; ep. or terr.: 28004*, 28932*.

77. Epidendrum blepharistes Barker ex Lindl.
     Sec. for., Carretera Nanegal-Marianitas, 1300 m; ep., white fls: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

78. Epidendrum brachyglossum Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1800-2400 m; ep./terr.: AR photo voucher; Dodson 6990; Hartweg 1417 (type); Luer 2372; Suin 431; [Molau & Eriksen 3057].

     [Epidendrum brachystele Schltr., Nono-Nanegalito via Tandayapa, sec. for., 2160 m; ep., fls. green, non-resupinate: AR photo voucher; Dodson & Thien 1093, Dodson & Dodson 16502].

79. Epidendrum calanthum Rchb. f. & Warsz.
     Sec. for., 1250 m; ep., fls. yellow.: 28132*(?), 28153 (det. E. A. Christenson); AR photo voucher.

80. Epidendrum caloglossum Schltr.
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1600 m; ep.?: Dodson 6987.

81. Epidendrum cochlidium Lindl.
     Prim. & upper mont. scrub, 1700-2500 m; ep. or terr., fls. red or orange: 28085*, 28104*, 30094, 30260*, 30587*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; F 1491; Holm-Nielsen 24413*; Suin 447; [Asplund 17265; Dodson & Thien 1104].

82. Epidendrum cf. cornanthera Lehm. & Kraenzl.
     Sec. for., 1550 m; ep.?, viny: 31785.

83. Epidendrum coryophorum (Kunth) Rchb f.
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 2300 m; ep./terr., fls. white with purple spots: AR photo voucher; F 1446*.

84. Epidendrum diothonaeoides Schltr.
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 2300-2450 m; ep./terr.: AR photo voucher; F 1350, 1434.

85. Epidendrum elleanthoides Schltr.
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; terr., fls. pale greenish: L 13681.

86. Epidendrum embreei Dodson
     Sec. for., 2000-2225 m; fls. reddish pink: 30098; AR photo voucher; P 3589; Dodson & Thien 1090; Molau 2215.

     [Epidendrum excisum Lindl., Yunguilla, sec. for., 2600 m; ep., large paniculate infl., fls. creamy yellow-white: AR photo voucher (det. E. Hágsater).]

87. Epidendrum fimbriatum Kunth
     Sec. for., 1800-2000 m; usually terr., fls. white with purple markings: AR photo voucher; K 1466; L 14046, 14048; Bohlin 1119; Dodson & Thien 1095; Harling & Andersson 11611 .

88. Epidendrum gastropodium Rchb. f.
     2200-2500 m; ep. or terr.: K 1564; Dodson 10764; Suin 495.

89. Epidendrum geminiflorum Kunth
     Sec. & upper mont. for., 2000-2700 m; ep./terr., fls. green, non-resupinate: AR photo voucher; F 1413; K 1468; Dodson & Thien 1100; Plowman & Davis 4436; Suin 426, 473.

90. Epidendrum goodspeedianum A. D. Hawkes
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; ep./terr., fls. green with pink lip: 28688*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Bohlin 1127; Suin 327; [Nono-Tandayapa, 2160 m: Dodson 10819]. [Listed in CVPE as a misidentification of Epidendrum agoyanense Hágsater & Dodson.]

91. Epidendrum hymenodes Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; ep., fls. green with white lip: 27510*; AR photo voucher; Suin 466.

92. Epidendrum cf. incomptum Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1550-1600 m; ep., fls. greenish- or pinkish-brown: 31120, 32962. [Not in CVPE.] 

93. Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f. (incl. E. evectum Hook f.)
     Banks in sec. for., 2000 m; ep./terr., to 1.5 m, fls. magenta: 28652, 31854; [Nono-Nanegal, km 18, 2000 m: Dodson & Thien 1098, Dodson 3730, 3732; Stevenson 72767-7; these likely from just outside the area].

94. Epidendrum lloense (Lindl.) Hágsater & Dodson
     Nono to Nanegal, km 34, 1550 m: Dodson 3839 (det. E. Hágsater).

95. Epidendrum longiflorum Kunth
     Utopia, Río Alambi, 2000 m; ep., fls. green with white lip: AR photo voucher (det. confirmed E. Hágsater).

96. Epidendrum macroöphorum Hágsater & Dodson
     Nanegal, 1000-1800 m; ep./terr., fls. greenish white with white lip, ovary up to 25 cm long: Sodiro 53 (Aug 1874); Wallis 3219; Banks, 1200-2000 m; terr., stems to 2 m, fls. greenish-white with creamy white lip: 28163*, 28389, 30467, 31922; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Hirtz 3199. [Not in CVPE.]

     [Epidendrum macrostachyum Lindl., at Pelagallo, 2800 m: Hirtz 2466.]

97. Epidendrum mancum Lindl.
     2500 m; ep., fls. reddish purple with white: AR photo voucher.

98. Epidendrum marsupiale F. Lehm. & Kraenzl.
     Banks in sec. for., 1250 m; ep./terr., fls. pale green: 31087**; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Tandayapa, 2200 m: MacBryde 111 [possibly extralimital].

99. Epidendrum microcarpum Hágsater & Dodson
     Prim. for., 2400 m; ep./terr., fls. small, greenish-yellow: AR photo voucher (det. E. Hágsater). [Not in CVPE.]

100. Epidendrum "microsecundum" Hágsater & Dodson (ined.?)
     Sec. for., 1200 m; ep., fls. orange: 27502*. [Not in CVPE.]

101. Epidendrum montisillinicense Hágsater & Dodson
     Prim. for., 2600 m: 30571 (det. E. Hágsater). [Not in CVPE.]

102. Epidendrum nanegalense Hágsater & Dodson
     Nono-Nanegal, Río Alambi, km 43-45, 2200-2500 m: Sparre 15960 (type); Nanegalito, Sendero Principal, 1700 m; ep., terminal infls., pink fls.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Sparre 14866. [Not in CVPE.]

103. Epidendrum odontantherum Hágsater & Dodson
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; terr.: L 13673 (type); [Yunguilla-Sta. Lucia, 2200 m: AR photo voucher* (may be within area)].

     [Epidendrum pallatangae Schltr., Nono-Nanegal, 2200 m: Harling 14866.]

104. Epidendrum paniculatum Ruiz & Pav., vel aff.
     Sec. for., Nono-Nanegal, 1600-2000 m; terr.: Dodson & Thien 1094, Dodson 6986. [Endemic to Peru, needs to be revised.]

105. Epidendrum parvilabre Lindl.
     Upper mont. for., Cerro Montecristi, 2250 m; ep., fls. green with white lip: 28917*.

106. Epidendrum peraltum Schltr.
     Prim. for., 2000 m; ep., fls. magenta: 28861*.

107. Epidendrum porphyreum Lindl. (incl. Epidendrum spathatum Schltr.)
     Sec. for., banks, & scrub, 1650-2450 m; ep. or terr., fls. orange to pink & magenta: 30067*, 31181**, 31792, 31918; F 1068, 1334, 1402; AR photo voucher; Croat 72862*; Dodson 3731; Hurtado 1437*, 1441*; Suin 361, 376, 429.

108. Epidendrum quitensium Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 2000-3000 m; ep./terr., fls. purple, non-resupinate: AR photo voucher; Dodson 3732. [Listed in CVPE as synonym of Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f.]

109. Epidendrum ramosum Jacq.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; ep.: 28968*, 32916; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 16509.

110. Epidendrum renilabium Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1700-2000 m; ep./terr., fls. yellowish: 27951*, 31924; AR photo voucher.

     [Epidendrum repens Cogn., Nono-Tandayapa, km 16, 2210 m; ep./terr.: Dodson 10768.] 

111. Epidendrum rostratum Garay & Dunst.
     Sec. for., 1000-2000 m; ep., plant pendent, branched, fls. greenish: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

112. Epidendrum scharfii Hágsater & Dodson
     Guava trees in pastures, El Carmen-Santa Lucia, 1300 m; terr., fls. translucent white: AR photo voucher (det. E. Hágsater).

113. Epidendrum cf. secundum Jacq.
     Sec. for. & banks, 1200-2000 m; ep. or terr., fls. orange: 27502*, 28051*, 31631, 33610; Holm-Nielsen 24462*. [Needs to be revised, does not occur in Ecuador.]

     [Epidendrum sodiroi Schltr., described from near Gualea: Sodiro 65 (type), may occur within the western boundary of our area.]

114. Epidendrum tandapianum Dodson & Hágsater
     Prim. for., 2200-2580 m; ep./terr., fls. green: 28931*; Dodson 16500 (type).

115. Epidendrum trachysepalum Hágsater
     Nono-Nanegal, 1200 m: Luer 774.

116. Epidendrum sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1200 m; ep.: 28843*.

117. Epidendrum sp. 2
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep., fls. pale green: 31111.

118. Epidendrum sp. 3
     Nanegalito, 1800 m; ep.: C 13064.

119. Epidendrum sp. 4 (diothonaea group)
     Nanegal: Sodiro 4/1907.

120. Eriopsis rutidobulbon Hook.
     Sec. for., 1500-2000 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. yellow with red margins and yellow column: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

121. Erythrodes clavigera (Rchb. f.) Ames (= Erythrodes boliviensis Cogn.)
     Prim. & sec. for., 1650-2000 m; terr., fls. pinkish: 28223*, 28858*, 30066*; AR photo voucher.

122. Erythrodes erythrodoides (Schltr.) Ames
     Sec. for., 1450 m; terr., fls. greenish: 28849.

123. Erythrodes jamesonii (Garay) Dodson
     Nanegal, 1300 m; terr.: AR photo voucher; Jameson s.n.

124. Erythrodes sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1400 m; terr: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

     [A number of additional collections of Erythrodes remain unidentified to species.]

125. Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; terr., fls. whitish: 29275.

126. Eurystyles cotyledon Wawra
     Sec. for., 1450-1500 m; ep./terr.: 31905; AR photo voucher.

127. Gomphichis adnata (Ridl.) Schltr. (= Gomphichis hetaerioides Schltr., so listed in CVPE)
     Sec. for., Nanegal to Gualea, 1300-1400 m; ep./terr.: 30336; Río Umachaca: Sodiro s.n.; [Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: Dodson 10776].

128. Govenia sodiroi Schltr.
     Carretera between Utopia and Nanegalito, 1800 m: AR photo voucher; near Bellavista, 2000 m: AR (field det.); [between Nono & Tandayapa, 2100 m; terr.: Harling 19976.]

129. Govenia tingens Poepp. & Endl.
     Sec. for., 1300-1900 m; terr. fls. pale yellow with reddish-purple markings: AR photo voucher; Suin 503.

130. Habenaria dentifera C. Schweinf.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; terr., fls. greenish: 27593*, 29115, 32359; AR photo voucher.

131. Habenaria floribunda Lindl.
     Sec. for., Nanegal; terr.: Sodiro s.n.*

132. Habenaria monorrhiza (Sw.) Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1200-1850 m; terr., fls. white or greenish: 27089*, 27781*, 27785*, 28038, 28055*, 28164*, 28264*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 10824; Harling & Andersson 11560; Todzia 2478.

     [Habenaria sp. 1 (cf. repens Nutt.), Yunguilla, 2600 m; fls. green with extended sepals: AR photo voucher.]

133. Ida ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Ryan & Oakeley
     1200-2000 m; ep., fls. white, lip fimbriate: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher. [In CVPE as Lycaste ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) Lindl. ex Rchb. f.]

134. Ida gigantea (Lindl.) A. Ryan & Oakeley  
     1500-3000 m; ep./terr., fls. greenish-yellow with red lip: AR photo voucher; Dalström 1606. [In CVPE as Lycaste longipetala (Ruiz & Pav.) Garay.] [Ecuadorean plants are better placed in Ida heynderycxii (E. Morren) A. Ryan & Oakeley fide A. Ryan & Oakeley, 2003.]

135. Ida sp. 1
     Nanegalito, 1800 m; terr.: C 13048 (as Lycaste).

136. Ionopsis satyrioides (Sw.) Rchb. f.
     Nanegal, 1200 m; ep., fls. white with purple striations: AR photo voucher.

137. Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br.
     Sec. for., 1300-1350 m; ep.: 32360; AR photo voucher.

138. Kefersteinia ocellata Garay
     Sec. for., 1000-1500 m; ep., fls. greenish white, striped and spotted purple: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

139. Kefersteinia sanguinolenta Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1600 m; ep.: Dodson 18799A.

140. Kefersteinia taurina Rchb. f.
     El Pahuma, Sendero Principal, 1500-2500 m; ep., fls. whitish green with red markings: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

141. Kefersteinia sp. 1
     Rip. for., 1900 m; ep.: 31592.

142. Lepanthes acarina Luer
     1000-3000 m; ep., plant miniscule, fls. white with reddish violet petals: AR photo voucher (det. L. Jost); west of Calacalí and La Liberia: Luer 11046. [May be extralimital.]

143. Lepanthes ballatrix Luer
     Prim. for., 2400 m; ep.,  fls. white with yellow and purple: AR photo voucher (det. L. Jost); west of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2550 m: Luer 11042 [may be extralimital]; [Calacalí-Nieblí, Pelagallo, 2700 m: Hirtz 2474].

144. Lepanthes biloba Lindl.
     Sendero Principal, 2000-3500 m; ep., fls. yellow or brownish with red-purple petals: AR photo voucher (det. L. Jost); [Calacalí-Nieblí, La Liberia, 2800 m: Dodson 15775].

     [Lepanthes brachypogon Luer, west of Tandayapa, 2320 m; ep.: Luer 7301 (type).]

145. Lepanthes cassidea Rchb. f.
     Forests, Nanegal; ep.: Jameson, 1854.

146. Lepanthes columbar Luer
     West of Calacalí, 1800 m; fls. yellow-green with bright pink lip: Luer 13322; [Calacalí-La Liberia, 2200 m: Luer 10000].

147. Lepanthes effusa Schltr. (incl. L. millei Schltr.)
     1800-2400 m; ep., sepals light red-brown, petals purple with yellow edge; lip purple with yellow center: Dodson & Thien 1106; Luer 9994, 11038A, 13323.

148. Lepanthes gargantua Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1550-1600 m; ep., lvs. purplish, fls. white: 31055; AR photo voucher; west of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2550 m: Luer 11041 [may be extralimital]; [Calacalí-Nieblí, La Liberia, 2600 m: Hirtz 1299].

149. Lepanthes kuijtii Luer & Hirtz
     Prim. for., Santa Lucia, 1600 m; ep., fls. red with yellow-green margins, sepals with spreading tails: AR photo voucher (det. L. Jost).

150. Lepanthes magnifica Luer
     1000-2500 m; ep., lvs. purplish, with pubescent ridges underneath, fls. white with red-violet margins on petals: AR alcohol voucher, photo vouchers.

151. Lepanthes mucronata Lindl. (incl. L. andrenoglossa Rchb. f.)
     Forests, Nanegal; ep.: Jameson, 1854; Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m: AR photo voucher; Luer 2400; west of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2500 m: Luer 11047 [may be extralimital]; [Calacalí-La Liberia, 2200 m: Luer 10013].

152. Lepanthes nanegalensis Rchb. f.
     Nanegal; ep.: Jameson, "1864" [1854?].

153. Lepanthes pecunialis Luer & Hirtz
     Sec. for., 1250-1800 m; ep., fls. orange: 27613*, 28130*, 31564(?); AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; C 13032; T 595; Dalström 1609; Luer 4753.

154. Lepanthes pelyx Luer & Hirtz
     Prim. for., 1600-1800 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., lvs. thinly coriaceous, fls. light brown, petals green with fuschia lip: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher (det. L. Jost).

     [Lepanthes pilosella Rchb. f., Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; Dodson 10788; Calacalí-La Liberia: 2100 m: Luer 10009.]

     [Lepanthes pteropogon Rchb. f., Calacalí-La Liberia, 2400 m: Luer 9993; Yunguilla, 2000-3500 m; ep.: AR photo voucher.]

155. Lepanthes rhodophylla Schltr.
     Nanegal Valley near Río Frio; ep.: Sodiro 1896, 1902.

     [Lepanthes stupenda Luer, La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1414; Calacalí-Nieblí, Pelagallo, 2800 m: Hirtz 2163.]

156. Lepanthes villosa Lojtnant
     Prim. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1600 m; ep., fls. cream and purple, striped dark purple: AR photo voucher.

157. Lepanthes zygion Luer
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 2000 m: Hirtz s.n. (cited by Valencia et al., 2000: 311).

158. Lepanthes sp. 1
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1600 m; ep., lvs. pubescent, fls. yellowish with red and purple markings: AR photo voucher.

     [Liparis ramosa Poepp. & Endl., Calacalí-Nieblí, 2700-2800 m: Hirtz 1420, 2146.]

159. Lockhartia chocoensis Kraenzl.
     Prim. for., 1550-2000 m; ep., fls. yellow with red markings: 30428; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 17189a.

160. Lockhartia longifolia (Lindl.) Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; ep., fls. yellow: 27625*, 28964*, 29301 (det. E. A. Christenson), 30428*; AR photo voucher.

161. Lycomormium ecuadorense Sweet
     Sec. for., Inca Trail, 1350 m; ep., buds whitish, fls. pink with purple spots: 31083; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

162. Macroclinium perryi (Dodson) Dodson
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1400-1600 m; ep.?: Dodson 6995 (type); Hirtz 993.

163. Malaxis cf. andicola (Ridl.) Kuntze
     Sendero Humedal, 1300 m; ep., fls. greenish: AR photo voucher.

164. Malaxis fastigiata (Rchb. f.) Kuntze
     El Pahuma, 2500 m; terr.: Suin 490.

165. Malaxis ventricosa (Poepp. & Endl.) Kuntze
     Between Nono-Pacto, 5-10 km above Nanegalito, 00° 00' N 78° 40' W, 1700 m; terr.: Holm-Nielsen 24435*.

166. Masdevallia anachaeta Rchb. f.
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1650 m; ep., fls. yellowish orange: AR photo voucher; Tandayapa, 2160-2300 m; ep.: Dodson 10787; Königer 216b.

167. Masdevallia angulata Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1500-2000 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; C 5938; Luer 4723*; Suin 359, 403.

168. Masdevallia cucullata Lindl.
     Nanegalito, 2200 m: Königer 164d.

169. Masdevallia nidifica Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1900-2300 m; ep., fls. cream & purple: AR photo voucher; F 1020; Königer 155a; Luer 2371*; Suin 422.

170. Masdevallia ophioglossa Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1700-2300 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; Dalström 1607; Königer155b; Luer 5211*.

171. Masdevallia parvula Schltr.
     Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m; ep.: Dodson 1096.

172. Masdevallia ventricularia Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1675-2250 m; ep., fls. maroon with orange tips: 31136; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Luer 1695; El Pahuma, 2000 m; ep., fls. purple with yellow base: Suin 445? (det. as Masdevallia aff. saltatrix Rchb. f.).

173. Masdevallia sp. 1
     Sec. for., 2100-2200 m; ep., fls. yellow: 30088.

174. Masdevallia sp. 2
     Prim. for., 2000 m; ep., fls. greenish-white: 28860.

175. Masdevallia sp. 3
     Prim. for., 1200-1700 m; ep., fls. pinkish-purple: Tipaz & Quelal 163*.

176. Masdevallia sp. 4
     Prim. for., 2125 m; ep.: 28948*.

177. Maxillaria acutifolia Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; ep., fls. orange with burgundy lip: 27512*, 27536*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

178. Maxillaria aggregata (Kunth) Lindl.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, Utopia; ep., fls. pink, thickly bunched at base of lvs.: AR 1, photo voucher.

179. Maxillaria aurea (Poepp. & Endl.) L. O. Williams
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 1900-1950 m; ep./terr.: AR photo voucher; F 1146.

180. Maxillaria calantha Schltr. (incl. Maxillaria nigrescens Lindl.)
     Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m; ep.: Dodson & Thien 1099; El Pahuma, 2400 m: Suin 422 (aff.); [La Liberia, 2200 m: Hirtz 1514].

181. Maxillaria cryptobulbon Carnevali  & J. T. Atwood
     Sec. for.& orchid garden, 1250-1500 m; ep., fls. white or yellowish: 30396*, 31872, 32924; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

182. Maxillaria dichotoma (Schltr.) L.O. Williams
     Orchid garden, 1200 m; ep., viny habit, fls. yellow-green: AR photo voucher; Nanegal: Sodiro 94.

183. Maxillaria ecuadorensis Schltr.
     Sec. for., 1200-2150 m; ep. or terr., fls. yellow with reddish-brown lobes: 30088; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; F 1249, 1495; N 8655*; Hurtado 1420*.

184. Maxillaria graminifolia Rchb. f.
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1500 m; ep. on fallen tree, viny in large clumps, fls. creamy white with purple markings: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; [Nono-Nanegal, Guayumo, 2000 m: Dodson & Thien 1092.]

185. Maxillaria grandiflora (Kunth) Lindl.
     Sec. & upper mont. for., 2000-3000 m; ep., fls. 6-8 cm across, perianth white, lip yellow within, purple-striped without: 32815; AR photo voucher.

     [Maxillaria jamesonii (Rchb. f.) Garay & C. Schweinf., Nono-Tandayapa, 2200 m: Harling & Andersson 11633.]

186. Maxillaria lehmannii Rchb. f.
     1100-2150 m; ep., fls. large, up to 13 cm across, white with yellow inside lip and red outside: AR photo voucher; Dodson 10823, 15749; [Nono-Nanegalito via Tandayapa, 2160 m: Dodson 16503].

187. Maxillaria lepidota Lindl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1600-2400 m; ep., fls. yellow with purple spots: 30457*, 31080, 32839; AR photo voucher; C 13030; P 3579*; Dalström 1605; Dodson & Thien 1089; Suin 339, 416, 450, 457.

188. Maxillaria longibracteata (Lindl.) Rchb. f. (incl. Maxillaria luteo-rubra (Lindl.) Rchb. f.)
     Nanegal; ep.: Jameson s.n.; [Nono-Nanegal, 2200 m: Luer 4710; Nono-Tandayapa 2200 m: Plowman & Davis 4443; Calacalí-Niebli, 2800 m: Dodson 15764; Hirtz 2139].

189. Maxillaria nanegalensis Rchb. f.
     Nanegal: Jameson s.n. (type); above Tandayapa, 2000 m: Luer 2365, 4732; [Calacalí-Neibli, 2000 m: Hirtz 1491].

190. Maxillaria nasuta Rchb. f.
     Sendero del Río, 1250 m; ep., fls. yellow with red lip: AR photo voucher.

191. Maxillaria pardalina Garay
     Nono-Nanegal & El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 1850-2100 m; ep., fls. yellow with red spots: 30186*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; F 1493; Dodson 1091; Suin 266, 465.

192. Maxillaria parviflora (Poepp. & Endl.) Garay
     Sec. for., 1100-1225 m; ep.: 31160; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 17063.

193. Maxillaria polyphylla Rchb. f.
     Utopia, 2000 m: AR photo voucher.

194. Maxillaria porrecta Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1300 m; ep., fls. yellowish: 27511*, 27532*, 27610*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

195. Maxillaria pseudoreichenheimiana Dodson
     Sec. for., 1000-1500 m; ep., lvs. spotted white, fls. orange with white lip: AR 17, AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

196. Maxillaria ramosa Ruiz & Pav.
     Sec. for., 1250-1300 m; ep., viney, fls. green: 27615*.

     [Maxillaria squarrosa (Schltr.) Dodson, Nono-Nanegalito via Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m: AR photo voucher; Dodson 16504; Calacalí-Niebli, 2800 m: Hirtz 2140.]

197. Maxillaria sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m; ep., fls. white, sepal tips pink: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

198. Maxillaria sp. 2
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., cane-stem habit, aerial roots, fls. axillary, yellow-white: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

199. Maxillaria sp. 3
     1800 m; ep., creeping, fls. yellow with purple: AR photo voucher.

200. Maxillaria sp. 4 (rufescens group)
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. pink: AR photo voucher.

201. Maxillaria sp. 5
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., viny habit, fls. greenish white: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher (both det. M. Blanco).

202. Myoxanthus affinis ( Lindl.) Luer
     Sec. for., Utopia, 2000 m; fls. translucent white with purple lip: AR photo voucher.

203. Myoxanthus sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1600-1900 m & orchid garden, 1300 m; ep., fls. pale yellow: 27821, 27966, 28010; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

204. Myrosmodes sp.
     Prim. for., 1900 m; ep.: 30458*.

205. Odontoglossum armatum Rchb. f
     Prim. &  sec. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., fls. yellow brown with red spots: AR photo voucher.

206. Odontoglossum cirrhosum Lindl.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1200-2000 m; ep./terr., fls. white with red dots, lip yellow: 30589**; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; T 167; Luer 2373; Suin 458; [Dodson 10777].

207. Odontoglossum cristatum Lindl. 
     Sec. for., 1850 m; ep., fls. yellow & brown: 30382**; AR photo voucher; Dodson 16507.

208. Odontoglossum "denticulatum" F. Lehm. ex Dalström ined.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2000-2750 m; ep., fls. yellow & brown: 30556**; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Andreetta 216; Lehmann 8549. [Not in CVPE; unpublished name.]

209. Odontoglossum hallii Lindl.
     Prim. for., 1800-2000 m; ep., fls. yellow-green spotted with brown: 27333*; [Yunguilla orchid garden: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher].

210. Odontoglossum sp. 1
     Prim. for., Montecristi, 2725 m; ep.: 29513.

211. Oerstedella medinae (Dodson) Hágsater
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1300 m; ep., fls. green with pink lip: AR photo voucher.

212. Oncidium hapalotyle Schltr.
     Sec. for.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Tandayapa, 1900 m; ep.: Harling & Andersson 11615*.

     [Oncidium heteranthum Poepp. & Endl.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: Dodson 10784.]

213. Oncidium klotzscheanum Rchb. f. (incl. O. obryzatum Rchb. f.)
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep., fls. yellow with brown spots on lateral tepals: 27619*, 32929; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

214. Oncidium pentadactylon Lindl.
     Prim. & upper mont. for. & scrub, 1600-2500 m; ep. or terr., fls. yellow: 28093*, 30042?; AR photo voucher; K 1487; Dodson 6991. "Margarita".

215. Otoglossum anixopterum (Rchb. f) Garay & Dunst.
     Prim. & sec. for., Sta. Lucia, 2000-3000 m; ep., fls. orange and yellow with purple lip: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

216. Pachyphyllum falcifolium Rchb. f.
     Calacalí-Nanegal; ep.: K 1523.

217. Pelexia ecuadorensis Schltr.
     Nanegal, 1300 m; terr.: Jameson s.n.

218. Peristeria cf. lindenii Rolfe
     Sec. for., 1350 m; ep., buds white: 31024.

219. Phragmipedium lindenii (Lindl.) Dressler & N. H. Williams
     Sec. for., 1300-1850 m; terr., tepals yellow with greenish veins, lobes purplish: 27968*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 10821; Sodiro s.n.

220. Phragmipedium longifolium (Rchb. f. & Warsz.) Rolfe
     Sec. for., Nanegal; terr.: AR photo voucher; Hartweg s.n.* [last collecton could be extralimital.].

221. Platystele sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1650-1700 m; ep., fls. greenish: 31143.

     [Platystele alucitae Luer: Dodson 7315; and Platystele microscopica Luer: Dodson 7311; both from Tandayapa-Mindo, 2100 m; ep.]

222. Pleurothallis anceps Luer
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1300-1600 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 6993; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Suin 468.

     [Pleurothallis antennifera Lindl., Guantopungo, prim. for., 2400 m; ep., fls. greenish yellow: AR photo voucher.]

223. Pleurothallis bicruris Lindl.
     Prim. for., Montecristi, 2400-2500 m; ep., fls. white mottled with red: AR photo voucher; west of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2500 m: Luer 11053 [may be extralimital]; [La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1409].

224. Pleurothallis bivalvis Lindl.
     Prim. & sec. for., Sendero los Gallos, 1300 m; ep., lvs. cordate, fls. green and red: AR photo voucher.

     [Pleurothallis cardiophylla Schltr., Nono-Nanegal, km 18, 2000 m: Dodson 3733; Quito-Mindo via Tandayapa, 2000 m: Luer 2389 (possibly within the area).]

     [Pleurothallis cassidis Lindl., Hacienda Yunguilla, 2800 m; ep.: Haught 3181.]

225. Pleurothallis chloroleuca Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1500-1700 m; ep., fls. yellow: AR photo voucher; Q 121 (det. G. Carnevali).

226. Pleurothallis cordata (Ruiz & Pav.) Lindl.
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 1700-2725 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep./terr., plants greenish or purplish: 27443, 28206*, 28253*, 29233, 29502, 30560, 30567, 31227; AR alcohol voucher***, photo vouchers***; L 13678, 13685, 13688, 14050; Harling & Andersson 11610***, 11637; Suin 358, 390 (both aff.).

227. Pleurothallis crossota Luer & Dalström
     1500-2000 m; ep./terr., lvs. cordate, fls. brown or purple, dorsal sepal five-veined: AR photo vouchers***.

228. Pleurothallis crucifera Luer & Hirtz
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1250 m; ep., fls. yellowish-brown: AR photo voucher***.

229. Pleurothallis deflexa Luer
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., fls. deep purple with brown lip: AR photo voucher***; [Tandayapa-Mindo, 2000 m: Luer 2367, 2403].

230. Pleurothallis dibolia Luer
     Senderos Tranquilo & Principal, 1000-1500 m; ep., fls. dull yellow with brown lip: AR photo voucher.

231. Pleurothallis dodsonii Luer
     Sec. for., Marianitas, 1250 m; ep., lvs. spotted, fls. hidden within bract: AR photo voucher.

232. Pleurothallis dunstervillei Foldats
     El Pahuma, 2400 m; ep., fls. purple: Suin 433.

233. Pleurothallis ensata Luer
     Sendero Tranquilo, 1300 m; ep., lvs. narrowly cordate, fls. pink with yellow lip: AR photo voucher.

234. Pleurothallis epiglottis Luer
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., fls. non-resupinate, white with blue: AR photo voucher***.

235. Pleurothallis erythrium Luer
     1000-2500 m; ep., fls. reddish-purple: AR photo voucher***.

     [Pleurothallis expansa Lindl., La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1415 (det. C. Luer).]

236. Pleurothallis gelida Lindl.
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., long, congested raceme with translucent white fls: AR photo voucher; [Tandayapa-Mindo, 2000 m: Luer 2401].

237. Pleurothallis gongylodes Luer
     West of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2100 m: Luer 11035. [May be extralimital.]

     [Pleurothallis grandiflora Lindl., at Yunguilla, 2600 m; ep., lvs. cordate, fls. large, yellow brown: AR photo voucher.]

238. Pleurothallis imperialis Luer
     Banks between El Carmen & Marianitas, 1200-1250 m; ep.: 28159*; AR photo voucher.

239. Pleurothallis lacera Luer
     Montecristi, 2400 m; ep., fls. dark wine red, lip lacerate: AR photo voucher; [La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1409].

240. Pleurothallis linguifera Lindl.
     Nono-Nanegal, 1200 m; ep., fls. yellow-brown to reddish-brown: Luer 798.

241. Pleurothallis macra Lindl.
     Upper mont. for., 2500-2750 m; ep./terr., fls. yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo vouchers; K 31979; L 13675, 13682, 13683; Suin 500***.

     [Pleurothallis oblonga Luer & Hirtz, La Liberia, 2800 m: Hirtz 1416.]

     [Pleurothallis pulchella (Kunth) Lindl., La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1412; Luer 14936.]

242. Pleurothallis ramulosa Lindl.
     Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m; ep.: Dodson & Thien 1103.

243. Pleurothallis restrepioides Lindl.
     El Pahuma, 1800-2500 m; ep., fls. white or yellow, heavily suffused with red, lip purplish: AR photo voucher; Suin 492; [La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1407].

244. Pleurothallis ruberrima Lindl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1000-2500 m; ep., fls. red with yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

245. Pleurothallis ruscifolia (Jacq.) R. Br.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1800 m; ep.or terr., common, fls. yellow to greenish: 27811*, 28061*, 28062, 28069*, 28194*, 31031, 31088 (these two det. E. A. Christenson); AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Nanegal: Sodiro s.n., 3/1906.

246. Pleurothallis scabrilinguis Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1800 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; Luer 13321.

247. Pleurothallis sclerophylla Lindl.
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 1900-2000 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; F 1141; Suin 448.

248. Pleurothallis sicaria Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1350-1400 m; ep., fls. & frs. dark green: 32918 (det. D. Kelch); AR photo voucher.

     [Pleurothallis sodiroi Schltr., Alaspungo-Gualea: Holmgren 639.]

249. Pleurothallis stevensonii Luer
     Prim. for., 1750 m; ep., fls. white with red spots: 28846*.

250. Pleurothallis trachysepala Kraenzl. (incl. Pleurothallis brachyblephara Schltr.)
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; ep., fls. purple: Suin 389.

251. Pleurothallis tripterantha Rchb. f.
     Sendero Humedal, 1300 m; ep., fls. cleistogamous: AR photo voucher.

     [Pleurothallis truncata Lindl., Yunguilla, 2600 m; fls. orange-red: AR photo voucher.]

252. Pleurothallis undulata Poepp. & Endl.
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1200-1300 m; ep.: Hirtz 1892, 1893.

253. Pleurothallis zephyrina Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 2150 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 15750.

254. Pleurothallis sp. 1
     Sec. for.; El Pahuma, 1800 m; long raceme, yellow frs. with red: AR photo voucher.

255. Pleurothallis sp. 2
     Sec. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1250 m; lvs. cordate, red fls., cross shaped: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

256. Pleurothallis sp. 3
     Sec. for., orchid garden, 1250 m; long raceme, small white fls.: AR photo voucher.

257. Pleurothallis sp. 4
     Prim. for., Montecristi, 2500 m; pink fls., pendent with 'cap' dorsal sepal: AR photo voucher.

258. Pleurothallis sp. 5
     Prim. for.; Montecristi, 2400 m; like sp. 8 (?), but smaller, with yellow lines: AR photo voucher.

259. Pleurothallis sp. 6
     Sec. for., El Pahuma, 1800 m; ep., lvs. cordate, fls. red-brown: AR photo voucher.

     [Pleurothallis sp. 7, Yunguilla, 2600 m; ep., fls. red and yellow, pubescent: AR photo voucher.]

260. Pleurothallis sp. 8
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; lvs. cordate, fls. yellowish-green with yellow lip: AR photo voucher.

261. Pleurothallis sp. 9
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. greenish with red lip: AR alcohol voucher***, photo voucher***.

     [A considerable number of collections of Pleurothallis remain unidentified to species.]

262. Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H. R. Sweet
     Sec. for. & clearings, 1000-1600 m; ep., fls. translucent yellow-white: 30423, 31567; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

263. Ponthieva disema Schltr.
     Sec. & upper mont. for., 2000-2600 m; ep./terr., fls. white: 32402; [Yunguilla, 2700 m: Haught 3162].

264. Ponthieva pseudoracemosa Garay
     Sec. for., 1600-2500 m; terr.: Smith 1946; Sparre 16795.

265. Porphyrostachys sp.
     Sec. for., 1300-1400 m; terr., fls. green: 32358. [Our plants differ from Porphyrostachys pilifera (Kunth) Rchb. f. in the distinctly green, rather than red, flowers.]

266. Porroglossum amethystinum (Rchb. f.) Garay
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-2100 m; ep., fls. pink to purplish: 27963*, 29201*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; T 163*.

267. Porroglossum muscosum (Rchb. f.) Schltr.
     Sec. for., 2000 m; ep.: AR photo vouchers; C 5952.

268. Porroglossum sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1475 m; ep. on mossy log, fls. pale maroon: 31898.

269. Prescottia stachyodes (Sw.) Lindl.
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; terr., fls. greenish-white: 32384, 32455; Hirtz 1890.

270. Prosthechea crassilabia (Poepp. & Endl.) Carnevali & I. Ramírez
     Sec. for., 1700-2000 m; ep., fls. green and black or reddish-brown: 28037 (det. E. A. Christenson), 31643; AR photo vouchers. [These specimens were previously determined as Prosthechea vespa (Vell.) W. E. Higgins.] [Not in CVPE.]

271. Prosthechea fragrans (Sw.) W. E. Higgins
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; ep., fls. white with red spots: 27535*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

272. Prosthechea hartwegii (Lindl.) W. E. Higgins
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; ep., fls. greenish-yellow with red: AR photo voucher; V 12309; Hirtz 1891*.

273. Prosthechea pamplonensis (Rchb. f.) W. E. Higgins
     Tandayapa, 1800 m; ep., fls. green with black markings, fragrant: AR photo voucher; Dodson 6989.

274. Pseudocentrum macrostachyum Lindl.
     Sec. for., 2000-2650 m; terr., fls. green: Dodson 15774; Hirtz 2157; Molau 3037; Sparre 16760.

275. Psygmorchis pumilio (Rchb. f.) Dodson & Dressler
     Sec. for., 1250 m; ep., fls. yellow: 28129*; AR photo voucher.

     [Pterichis triloba (Lindl.) Schltr., Yunguilla, 2600 m; ep., entire plant pubescent, fls. yellow-orange, non-resupinate: AR photo voucher.]

     [Restrepiopsis tubulosa (Lindl.) Luer (as Restrepiopsis viridula (Lindl.) Luer), Nono-Tandayapa, km 17, 2160 m; ep.: Dodson 10786.]

276. Rodriguezia lehmannii Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1250-1700 m; ep., fls. white with purplish or reddish lines: 27447 ex p.*, 27845*, 27977*, 31109; AR alcohol vouchers, photo vouchers; T 597*. [29078, with yellowish-green fls., may represent another species.] 

277. Scaphosepalum ophidion Luer
     Prim. for., Sta. Lucia, 1500-2500 m; ep., fls. yellow-brown or purple with purple markings throughout: AR alcohol vouchers, photo vouchers.

278. Scaphosepalum swertiifolium (Rchb. f.) Rolfe
     Prim. for., Sta. Lucia, 1500-2500 m; ep., fls. white or yellow with brown or purple, extended sepaline tails: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

279. Scaphosepalum sp. 1
     Prim. & upper mont. for., 2250-2700 m; ep., fls. purple: 28940*; K 31983.

280. Scaphyglottis prolifera Cogn.
     Sec. for. & clearings, 1000-1500 m; ep., fls. white with violet colorations: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

281. Scaphyglottis punctulata (Rchb. f.) Schweinf.
     Valle de Nanegal: Sodiro 73 (8/1874).

282. Scelochilus chiribogae Dodson
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1400 m; ep.: Hirtz 989*.

283. Scelochilus heterophyllus Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1800 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Hirtz 2179*.

284. Scelochilus jamiesonii Lindl.
     Sec. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1400 m; ep., fls. greenish white: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; [Nono-Nanegalito via Tandayapa, 2000-2160 m: Dodson 16502A, 16653].

285. Schlimmia stevensonii Dodson
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200 m; ep., fls. pink with red spots: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

286. Sertifera purpurea Lindl. & Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 21 km west of Calacalí, 2500 m; terr., fls. purple with white lip: AR photo voucher; L 13677; [La Liberia, 2700 m: Hirtz 1418].

287. Sertifera sp. 1
     Prim. for., 2250-2300 m; ep.: 28919*.

     [Sigmatostalix adamsii Dodson, Quito-Tandayapa, 2300 m; ep.: Dodson 13093.]

288. Sigmatostalix picta Rchb. f.
     Sec. for. & clearings, Sendero Tranquilo, 1500-2000 m; ep., fls. yellow and brown: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Nanegal: Sodiro 127 (8/1874).

289. Sigmatostalix sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1300 m; ep., fls. dull yellow with brown spots: 27684.

290. Sobralia atropubescens Ames & C. Schweinf.
     1000-2500 m; terr., stems 1 m, fls. orange-brown, lip pinkish suffused white and yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

291. Sobralia crocea (Poepp. & Endl.) Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1600-2000 m; ep./terr.: AR photo voucher; Dodson 6992; Molau & Eriksen 2230; Sodiro 132, 8/1876.

292. Sobralia ecuadorana Dodson
     Sec. for., 1450-1850 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep./terr., fls. pink, lip white with yellow, strongly fragrant of vanilla: 32969; AR alcohol vouchers, photo voucher; Dodson 10820.

293. Sobralia gentryi Dodson
     El Pahuma, 1800 m; fls. flushed wine color with yellow lip: AR photo voucher.

294. Sobralia gloriosa Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1200-1500 m; terr., stems 1 m, fls. white with maroon lip: 31941*; V 12264*.

295. Sobralia klotzscheana Rchb. f.
     Sec. for., 1450-2100 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; terr., to 1.5 m, fls. pink or white with pink lip: 27967*, 30451, 30481(?), 30502, 32969; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher. "Maygua"

296. Sobralia lancea Garay
     Orchid garden, 1200 m; terr., stems to 50 cm, fls. creamy white with a purple spot: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

297. Sobralia pulcherrima Garay
     Banks, 1200-1800 m; terr., to 4 m, fls. pink, lip with purplish lines: 28302, 29979*, 31941; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Harling & Andersson 11751 (type); Sodiro 134.

298. Sobralia rosea Poepp. & Endl.
     Steep banks in sec. for., 1200-1300 m; terr., canes to 3 m, fls. white, lip with purplish lines: 27079*; AR photo voucher; Asplund 1571.

299. Sobralia setigera Poepp. & Endl.
     El Pahuma, 1900 m: Suin 502.

300. Sobralia valida Rolfe
     Sec. for., 1300 m; terr., canes to 1 m; fls. fragrant, white with yellow throat, lip violet-edged: 31342**; AR photo voucher.

301. Stanhopea impressa Rolfe
     Sec. for., Tandayapa, 1600 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 18799.

302. Stanhopea sp. 1
     Sec. for., Hacienda El Carmen, 1250 m; ep.: Osbourn s.n.

303. Stelis adrianae Luer
     Nanegalito, 1300 m: Hirtz 4726***. [Not in CVPE.]

     [Stelis alba Kunth, Hacienda Yunguilla, 2800 m; ep.: Haught 3187.]

304. Stelis allenii L. O. Williams
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. reddish-purple: AR photo voucher***. [Not in CVPE.]

305. Stelis amoena Luer & Hirtz
     Calacalí to Nanegalito, 2000 m: Luer 19871. [Not in CVPE.]

306. Stelis argentata Lindl.
     Prim. & sec. for. & clearings, 1500-2000 m; ep., pink or purple fls.: AR photo vouchers; F 37130.

307. Stelis bicornis Lindl.
     El Pahuma, 2500 m; ep.; fls. yellow-green: Suin 499***.

308. Stelis biserrula Lindl.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1800-2250 m; ep., fls. purple & green: AR photo voucher***; M 1384***; Luer & Hirtz 19872.

309. Stelis calotricha Schltr.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250 m; ep., plant to 2 cm, fls. purple: AR photo voucher***.

310. Stelis columnaris Lindl.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1800-2250 m; ep., fls. purple, column extended past sepals: Luer 19875***; Molau & Ohman 1388***, 1390***.

311. Stelis concinna Lindl.
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 2000-2150 m; ep., fls. purple, pubescent, on long, flexuous infl: AR photo voucher; M 3046***.

312. Stelis eublepharis Rchb.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; ep., fls. pink, sepals pubescent: AR photo voucher; Hirtz 1894***.

313. Stelis flacca Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1600-2000 m; ep., fls. purple: AR 18, photo vouchers; Luer 19873***; Suin 467***.

314. Stelis hirtzii Luer
     Prim. & sec. for., 1200-1800 m; ep., fls. greenish-purple: AR 6***, photo voucher. [Not in CVPE.]

315. Stelis jamesonii Lindl.
     Prim. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1600 m; ep., fls. pink with yellow: AR 22***, photo voucher.

316. Stelis langlassei Schltr.
     1550-1600 m; ep,. fls. cream with purplish lobes: T 604***; G 73250***. [Not in CVPE.]

317. Stelis cf. lindenii Lindl.
     Prim. for., Sendero Tranquilo, 1600 m; ep., fls. yellow-green with purple: AR 19***, photo voucher.

318. Stelis morganii Dodson & Garay
     Sec. for., 1550-2000 m; ep., fls. cream, pubescent: 31784; AR photo voucher; C 13022; T 596*; Suin 449 (aff.).

319. Stelis nanegalensis Lindl. (incl. Stelis vulcanica Rchb. f.)
     Nono-Nanegal, 2000 m; fls. pink or yellow: Luer 6325A; AR 16, alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

320. Stelis pardipes Rchb. f.
     West of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2100 m: Luer 11037. [May be extralimital.]

     [Stelis piperina Lindl., Cerro Guantopungo, 2720 m: K 31986.]

321. Stelis pusilla Kunth
     Prim. & sec. for., 1650-2500 m; ep./terr., fls. pale yellow: 27964*; AR photo voucher; L 11341, 13674, 14045; Luer 19876; Molau & Ohman 1389; Suin 491.

322. Stelis striolata Lindl.
     Prim. & sec. for. & roadsides, 1200-2000 m; ep., fls. yellow with purple: AR photo voucher.

     [A number of additional collections of Stelis remain unidentified to species.]

323. Stellilabium andinum (L. O. Williams) Garay & Dunst.
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1400 m; ep.: AR photo voucher; Hirtz 991*.

324. Stellilabium astroglossum (Rchb. f.) Schltr. (incl. S. tanii Dodson)
     Sec. for., 1400-1600 m; ep.: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; Dodson 6994, 6995, 16511; Hirtz 990; Palacios 12843.

325. Stellilabium hirtzii Dodson
     Sec. for., Nanegalito, 1400 m; ep.: Hirtz 992* (type).

     [Stenorrhynchos cernuus Lindl., west of Nanegal, 1200 m; ep.: Hartweg s.n. (type), is probably extralimital.]

326. Stenorrhychos speciosum (Jacq.) Rich. ex. Spreng.
     Prim. for., Cerro Sosa, 2225 m; ep.: 29428*.

327. Symphyglossum sanguineum (Rchb. f.) Schltr.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1700-2000 m; ep., fls. red: 30155 (det. S. Dalstrom), 30588*; AR photo voucher; C 7175*; F 1185; Dodson 6984.

     [Telipogon hagsateri Dodson & R. Escobar, Yunguilla, 2600 m: AR photo voucher.]

328. Telipogon steinii Dodson & R. Escobar
     Prim. for., El Pahuma, 1800-1850 m; ep., fls. yellow with red-brown veins, lip red with spines: AR photo voucher*; Stein 2863 (type).

329. Trichopilia fragrans (Lindl). Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1300-2000 m; ep. or terr., fls. white, fragrant: 29214, 32920; C 5926*; AR photo voucher.

330. Trichopilia rostrata Rchb. f.
     Prim. for., 1750 m & orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. white, throat pink within: 28848*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

331. Trichopilia steinii Dodson ?
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. white with yellow throat, fleshy: AR alcohol voucher. [Not in CVPE.]

332. Trichosalpinx cedralensis (Ames) Luer (= Trichosalpinx ramulosa Luer & Hirtz)
     West of Calacalí and La Liberia, 2100 m: Luer 11034. [May be extralimital.]

333. Trichosalpinx dirhamphis (Luer) Luer
     Nanegalito, 1400 m;  Hirtz 6194; [Nono-Tandayapa, 2200 m: Harling & Andersson 11634]. 

334. Trichosalpinx dura (Lindl.) Luer
     Prim. for., 1900-2000 m; ep., buds yellowish: 27751; Dodson & Thien 1105. 

335. Trichosalpinx memor (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250 m; ep., lvs. purple, fleshy, fls. red-purple with yellow: AR photo voucher.

336. Trichosalpinx aff. microcharis (Schltr.) Luer
     El Pahuma, 2000 m; ep., fls. cream: Suin 470.

337. Trichosalpinx sp. 1
     Sec. for., 1600 m; ep.: 31124.

338. Trisetella vittata (Luer) Luer
     Sec. for., Tandayapa; ep.: Luer 5209*.

339. Xylobium elongatum (Lindl. & Paxton) Hemsl.
     Prim. & sec. for., 1250-1625 m; ep., fls. whitish, lip yellow: 28390, 31074; AR photo voucher.

340. Xylobium foveatum (Lindl.) G. Nicholson ?
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., fls. white: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

341. Xylobium leontoglossum (Rchb. f.) Rolfe
     Sec. for., 1200-2150 m; ep., fls. dull creamy white: 30368*, 31009, 31152(?); AR photo voucher; C 5927*; T 156*; Hurtado 1436*; Molau & Eriksen 3041; Suin 360, 440, 464.

342. Xylobium pallidiflorum (Hook.) G. Nicholson
     Sec. for., 1250-1600 m; ep., fls. yellow and white: 27933*, 28175*; AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher; T 594*; Nanegal: Sodiro 139.

343. Xylobium sp. 1
     Orchid garden, 1250 m; ep., pseudobulbs with 2-3 lvs, fls. pink, lip reddish-yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

344. Zootrophion dayanum (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Prim. & sec. for., 1500-2500 m; ep., fls. red with yellow throughout: AR photo voucher.

345. Zootrophion hypodiscus (Rchb. f.) Luer
     Sec. for., Sendero del Río, 1000-2000 m; ep., fls. reddish-brown with yellow: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

346. Zootrophion sp. 1
     Sec. for., Sendero del Río, 1350 m; fls. pinkish red: AR alcohol voucher, photo voucher.

POACEAE (37) (* det. G. Davidse; ** det. S. Laegaard; *** det. S. Renvoize)
     Refs.: Hitchcock, A. S. 1927. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 24: 291-556; Judziewicz, E. J. 1990. Fl. Guianas A8: 1-727.

1. Aegopogon cenchroides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
     Open scrub and rocky areas, 1600-2000 m: 32845; Holm-Nielsen 16153**; Laegaard 52498.

2. Agrostis sp.
     Rocky slope in sec. for., 1850-1900 m; herb with sprawling stems: 31575.

3. Andropogon bicornis L.
     Sec. for. & cleared areas, 1200-1650 m; common: 27159, 28354, 29353; Z 63. "Puntero"

4. Andropogon leucostachyus Kunth
     Disturbed roadsides, 1850-1900 m: 31635.

5. Anthoxanthum odoratum L.
     Bed of Río Pichán, 1900 m: 32396.

6. Arundinella berteroniana (Schult.) Hitchc. & Chase
     At side of Río Alambi, along road, 10 km north of Nanegalito, 00° 07' N 78° 39' W, 1400 m: Laegaard 53104***.

7. Axonopus compressus (Sw.) P. Beauv. (upland form)
     Sec. for. & roadsides, 1300-1700 m: 27157*, 27869*; Laegaard 52499***.

8. Axonopus scoparius (Flüggé) Kuhlm.
     Pastures & sec. scrub, 1300-1400 m; robust grass 1-1.5 m high: 31703; Filskov 37049**, 37050**; Z 60, 199. "Gamalote" "Micay" [An important forage grass.]

9. Briza minor L.
     Mossy banks, 2000 m: 31859.

10. Chusquea scandens Kunth
     Sec. for., 1800-2200 m; climber: C 13055; F 1471.

     [Chusquea subulata L. G. Clark, road from Calacalí to San José de Niebli, 2750 m: Young 124 (type).]

11. Chusquea uniflora Steud.
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 2300 m; climber: F 1422.

     [Additional collections of Chusquea from primary forest, Cerro Sosa, 2050-2650 m; climbing to 8 m: 29138, 29179, 29434, 29487, all barren, remain to be identified.]

12. Coix lacryma-jobi L.
     Sec. for. & scrub, 1250 m: 28303.

13. Cortaderia jubata (Lemoine) Stapf
     Scrub on banks, west of Quebrada Chiquilpe, 1950-2200 m; lvs. 1-1.5 m, infls. 2-2.5 m: 32844 (det. M. Lyle).

14. Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf
     Sec. for., 1200-1400 m: Filskov 37072***. "Yerba Louice"

15. Dichanthelium hebotes (Trin.) Zuloaga (= Panicum hebotes Trin.)
     Sec. for., 1250-1400 m; weed: 27838*, 27913*.

16. Digitaria abyssinica (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf
     Sec. for., 1500-2000 m: Z 66*; Delgado 16**; Laegaard 71455.

17. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.
     Pastures, 1300-1500 m: Z 156, 223.

18. Guadua angustifolia Kunth
     Common along Río Alambi, 1200-1300 m; canes to 10 m: 32863; Nanegalito: Acosta-Solís 17157 (det. S. M. Young & W. S. Judd).

19. Gynerium sagittatum (Aubl.) P. Beauv.
     Banks of Río Alambi, 1125 m; culms 3-4 m high, spikes pendent, purplish: 31279.

20. Holcus lanatus L.
     Openings in upper mont. for., 2700-2790 m: 30542; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Cedeño 31.

21. Homolepis glutinosa (Sw.) Zuloaga & Soderstrom
     Sec. for., 1175 m: 28809*.

22. Ichnanthus nemorosus (Sw.) Döll
     Nanegalito: Acosta-Solís 17164 (det. M. T. Stieber); [31878, from clearings (potreros) in sec. for., 1250-1300 m, may belong here].

23. Ichnanthus tenuis (J. Presl & C. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase
     At side of Río Alambi, along road, 10 km north of Nanegalito, 00° 07' N 78° 39' W, 1400 m: Laegaard 53105***, 53107B***.

24. Isachne arundinacea (Sw.) Griseb.
     Sec. for., 1225 m; vine with pendent branches: 31093.

25. Isachne rigens (Sw.) Trin.
     Sec. for. & edge of prim. for., 2000-2500 m: L 13665***, 14044***.

26. Lasiacis nigra Davidse
     Sec. for., 1300-2000 m; common scrambler: 27394, 27440, 27563, 27971, 29304*, 31039*, 31657; M 5254*; Delgado 32; Holm-Nielsen 24430***.

27. Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv. ex Ham.) Hitchc. & Chase
     Along road, 10 km north of Nanegalito, 00° 07' N 78° 39' W, 1400 m; 5 m tall, stems very slender 3-4 mm: Laegaard 53102.

28. Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv.
     Dry slope at roadside above Nanegalito, 00° 01' N 78° 40' W, 1600-1700 m: Laegaard 52502***.

29. Muhlenbergia diversiglumis Trin.
     Rocky slopes in sec. for., 1850-1900 m: 31625 (?, cf. tenuifolia (Kunth) Kunth); Laegaard 71457.

30. Oplismenus burmannii (Retz.) P. Beauv.
     Clearings in sec. for. & roadsides, 1600-2000 m: 31620; L 11345***; Laegaard 52501***, 53110***; Mantuano 5.

31. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P. Beauv.
     Weed in fields & roadside scrub, sec. for., clearings in prim. for., 1150-1700 m: 27190, 27842, 28835; Z 86; Laegaard 53106***.

32. Panicum polygonatum Schrad.
     Sec. for. & weed in banana fields, 1200-1500 m: 27200; Filskov 37081**; Nanegalito: Acosta-Solís 17166 (det. F. O. Zuloaga).

33. Panicum pulchellum Raddi
     Along road & in sec. for., 1350-1400 m: 30288; Laegaard 53107A***.

34. Panicum cf. sellowii Nees
     Sec. for., 1450 m: 29041.

35. Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius
     Roadsides & fields, 1200-1350 m: 27158; Z 170.

36. Paspalum cf. decumbens Sw.
     Pastures, 1300-1500 m: Z 159.

37. Paspalum paniculatum L.
     Weed in fields & along road, 1400-2000 m: 27203; Z 59; Delgado 61; Laegaard 53103A.

38. Paspalum penicillatum Hook. f.
     Prim. for., 2400-2500 m: 32802; L 13650***; roadbanks, 1600-1850 m: Laegaard 52500***, 71456.

39. Paspalum saccharoides Nees ex Trin.
     Roadside banks, 1200-1250 m: 27163, 31102.

40. Pennisetum bambusiforme (E. Fourn.) Hemsl. ex B. D. Jacks.
     Common on slopes & rocks, 00° 00' N 78° 38'-40' W, 1700-1900 m: Holm-Nielsen 16152**, 24425**; Laegaard 71454.

41. Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult.
     Roadside banks & pastures, 1200-1400 m: 27293; Filskov 37048***. [In CVPE as Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) Rich.]

42. Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
     Grassy slopes along Río Alambi, 1135 m; stems 2 m: 31274. "Pasto elefante"

43. Pennisetum tristachyum (Kunth) Spreng.
     Streambeds & roadsides, above Río Pichán, 2000-2225 m: 30101, 32424; Delgado 21**. "Tundillo"

44. Poa annua L.
     Rip. vegetation, 1600-1900 m: 32395, 32789; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Cedeño 30*.

45. Polypogon elongatus Kunth
     El Pahuma, 2000 m: Cedeño 32*.

46. Pseudechinolaena polystachya (Kunth) Stapf
     Sec. for. & pastures, 1200-1400 m; common: 27013, 27768, 27885, 28114**, 29070; Z 16; Filskov 37120***; El Pahuma, 2000 m: Delgado 6**.

47. Schizachyrium condensatum (Kunth) Nees
     Rocky areas, 00° 00' N 78° 38' W, 1800-1900 m: Holm-Nielsen 16154***.

48. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen
     Sec. for. & mossy banks in prim. for. 1200-2000 m: 31858; Delgado 35; Filskov 37082***.

49. Setaria sphacelata (Schumach.) M. B. Moss ex Stapf & C. E. Hubb.
     Sec. rip. for., 1200-1400 m; culms to 1.5 m high: 27156*, 28112*; Z 61, 188; Filskov 37046***; Laegaard 53109***. "Miel"

50. Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br.
     Open areas, 1200-1400 m: 27160, 29553; Z 64; Laegaard 53100 (det. I. Grignon).

51. Steinchisma laxa (Sw.) Zuloaga (= Panicum laxum Sw.)
     Open areas, 1400 m: 27154.

52. Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. D. Webster (= Panicum maximum Jacq.)
     Pastures, 1400 m: Filskov 37051**. "Sarvoya"

53. Vulpia myuros (L.) C. C. Gmel.
     Mossy banks, 2000 m: 31860.

54. Zeugites americanus Willd. var. mexicanus (Kunth) McVaugh
     Mature sec. for., 1400-1900 m; common herb with clumped stems, petiolate lvs.: 31052, 32374, 32392; Dodson 15236; Laegaard 53112, 54182, 71453.

PONTEDERIACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Horn, C. N. 1987. Fl. Ecuador 29: 1-19.

1. Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav.
     Muddy flats, 1250-1700 m: 27383.

SMILACACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Killip, E. P., & C. V. Morton. 1936. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 461: 257-290.

1. Smilax cf. eucalyptifolia Kunth
     Sec. for., 1500-1650 m; woody vine with yellowish-green fls.: 27122, 29351, 31128, 31910. "Zarzaparilla" [Not in CVPE.]

2. Smilax kunthii Killip & C. V. Morton
     Prim. for., 1800-2100 m; vine: 28933, 28953; C 5908, 7189 (last two det. J. Gaskin).

TYPHACEAE (1)
     Ref.: Crespo, S., & R. L. Pérez-Moreau. 1967. Darwiniana 14: 413-429.

1. Typha domingensis Pers.
     Along Río Umachaca, 1200-1250 m: 28974.

ZINGIBERACEAE (2) (* det. C. Ulloa; ** det. P. J. M. Maas)
     Ref.: Maas, P. J. M. 1976. Fl. Ecuador 6: 1-49.

1. Hedychium coronarium J. König
     Roadsides, 1200-1300 m; fls. white: 27802.

2. Renealmia aurantifera Maas
     Sec. for., Cerro Negro, 1500-2175 m; bracts greenish, fls. orange: 28009*, 30116, 30487; Croat 72868**; Mantuano 12; Plowman & Davis 4444**.

3. Renealmia dolichocalyx Maas
     Sec. for., 1250-2050 m; stems 2-2.5 m, infls. separate from base, fls. white, frs. red: 28747, 30506, 31251, 31339, 31389, 31737.

4. Renealmia fragilis Maas
     El Pahuma ("Loma Pahuamba"), 2200 m; stems to 0.8 m, fls. white, imm. frs. red: F 1475**.

5. Renealmia sessilifolia Gagnep.
     Sec. for., 1250-2000 m; to 2 m, bracts red, fls. white: 27101, 27149, 27672, 27865, 29350, 30034, 31069, 31662; G 73197**; V 12320**; Delgado 72; Holm-Nielsen 24415 (det. H. Balslev).

6. Renealmia thyrsoidea (Ruiz & Pav.) Poepp. & Endl.
     Sec. for., 1200-1250 m; stems to 2 m, infls. separate from base, bracts red: 28544*. "San Juanillo"

7. Renealmia sp. 1
     Prim. for., 1975-2275 m; stems c. 1 m, infls. separate from base, fls. white with orange center, frs. dark red: 29150, 29227. [Possibly a form of Renealmia oligosperma K. Schum.]

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